Chapter 10 Flashcards Preview

J - SOC 224 > Chapter 10 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 10 Deck (40):
1

Conformity

A person, behaviour, or characteristic that is considered normal and acceptable.

2

Deviance

A person, behaviour, or characteristic that is socially typed as deviant and subjected to measures of social control.

3

Objective

The view of deviance as being characterized by a single, common, clearly identifiable characteristic.

4

Positivist

Theories that attempt to explain the causes of behaviour.

5

Objective approaches to deviance are more likely to use ___ theories.

Positivist.

6

Subjective

The view of deviance as being the result of processes of social construction such that a person, behaviour, or characteristic is deviant "if enough important people say so."

7

Subjective approaches to deviance are more likely to use ___ approaches.

Critical/interpretive.

8

The Supreme Court of Canada has shifted the definition of obscenity to one based on...

Social harm.

9

Which view of deviance would explore why deviant religious groups form, what conditions foster acts like mass suicides, and what factors contribute to sect or cult violence?

Objective.

10

What view of deviance would explore why there is a distinction between traditional churches, and sects and cults, and which groups are treated as deviant in a society?

Subjective.

11

Scientific Misconduct

An umbrella term used to refer to fabrication or falsification of data, breaches of ethics, plagiarism, and any other scientific practices deemed unacceptable or inappropriate.

12

Bad Apple/Person Theory

A theory that claims acts of scientific misconduct are rare.

13

Iceberg Theory

A theory that claims the acts of scientific misconduct that are detected are only a small proportion of all of the instances of misconduct that are actually occurring.

14

Social Typing Process

The process by which some people come to be perceived as deviant and others as normal.

15

Description

The first component of the social typing process, whereby a label is attached to a particular person, behaviour, or characteristic.

16

Evaluation

The second step of the social typing process, whereby a person, behaviour, or characteristic has judgements attached based on the label applied during the description component.

17

Prescription

The third component of the social typing process, whereby measures of social control are directed at a person, behaviour, or characteristic because of the previously attached label and judgement.

18

Informal Social Control

Forms of social control that emerge from everyday social interaction. Also known as informal regulation.

19

Formal Social Controls

Forms of social control that emerge from organizations or institutions. Also known as formal regulation.

20

Preventative Social Control

Forms of social control intended to prevent a deviant behaviour or characteristic from emerging in the first place.

21

Retroactive Social control

Forms of social control intended to punish, fix, or cure deviance that has already occurred.

22

Self-Control

Forms of social control that one directs at oneself. Also known as self-regulation.

23

Moral Entrepreneurs

Individuals or groups who manufacture public morality by bringing a social problem to pubic awareness and then attempting to affect change in society's dominant moral codes.

24

Prescription refers to measures of ___ ___ or ___.

Social control, regulation.

25

How is commercial enterprise involved in the social typing process through media?

1. Media is a form of commercial enterprise.
2. Commercial enterprise uses the media as a tool for selling its products.

26

Deinstitutionalization

The social control of people with mental illnesses in community-based programs rather than in institutions.

27

Anti-Cult Movement

Individuals that educate people about dangerous or destructive cults and attempt to control their activities by lobbying governments and other organizations. Also known as cult-awareness groups.

28

Counter-Cult Movement

Fundamentalist Christian groups that express concerns about other religious groups they consider to be based on "wrong" ideologies.

29

Deviance Dance

The interactions, negotiations, and debates among groups with different perceptions of whether a behaviour or characteristic is deviant and needs to be socially controlled and, if so, how.

30

Deflecting

A stigma management technique in which individuals block an external stigmatizing force by distracting themselves from the labels they have been given.

31

Challenging

A stigma management technique in which individuals actively fight back against an external stigmatizing force, such as through confronting or educating others.

32

Junk Science

Ungrounded claims of people with little or no scientific background, or people using their scientific credentials alone to convince people of the validity of their claims.

33

Examples of acts that are not deviant in other societies.

- Sambian rituals.
- Eugenics.
- Residential schools.
- Homosexuality.
- Truancy.

34

True or false? Subjectivity will always be involved in the social typing of deviance.

True.

35

Give an example of a document that is considered a foundational document that emphasizes the notion of human rights.

United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

36

Human Dignity

The right to be treated with respect; a fundamental human right.

37

What are three common issues touched on in human rights documents?

1. Human dignity.
2. Discrimination.
3. Security of persons and property.

38

Discrimination

Differential treatment on the basis of group membership; a violation of human rights.

39

Security of Person and Property

A fundamental human right that protects individuals' physical well-being and entitles them to control over their own property.

40

When are circumstances where someone's human rights may legitimately be violated?

Threats to social order, public health, or other people's human rights.