Flashcards in Lecture 2 Deck (27):
- No rules that distinguish what is deviant and what is normal.
- Deviance is socially defined. Comes out of a social interaction.
Subjectivism says that deviance is ___ defined.
Notion of deviance is socially defined on the basis of ___ codes.
What do moral codes serve as a foundation for?
Determining which people, which characteristics are deviant and which are normal.
What makes moral codes complicated?
1. Moral codes are historically and culturally specific.
2. Moral codes are enforced in multiple ways.
Moral codes came out of a process called...
What are the two types of social construction?
Soft and hard.
Hard Social Constructionist
- Views humans as being linguistically and culturally determined.
- Implicitly saying that most of what makes us us is through social construction, and ignores biology. Sometimes denies that we cannot view outside of ourselves and see objectively
True or soft? Soft social constructionists are relativists.
False, hard social constructionists are.
Soft Social Constructionist
- Most deviance specialists. More moderate.
- Acknowledge that social groups are important to defining our reality, and sometimes are more important than any other factors.
- However, biology still matters. Say that biology matters, but there is a social element to our lives, and that is what I am interested in.
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome. Recognizes that it has biological effects, can lead to criminal behaviour. However, say that it does not explain specific ways that crime unfolds. History, geography, culture also play a role. What is this an example of?
Soft social construction.
Neuroscientists found that humans have the ability to commit themselves to an ideology. However, doesn’t explain differences we find in religions. What is this an example of?
Soft social construction.
4 process that determine the social construction of deviance in soft social construction:
- Sociocultural level — values, beliefs, ideologies.
- Institutional level — religion, education, government.
- Interactional level — influence of other people on one’s own perceptions of deviance.
- Individual level — realm of personal identity and conceptions of self to how we feel about ourselves.
What are the 3 things that social constructionists study?
- Learn place in the social order.
- Roles that are assigned to individuals that we identify as deviant.
- Meanings that we attach to this deviance.
Learning place in the social order:
- Power relationships. Want to know who is at the top making decisions about what is deviant.
- Who told us that it is bad?
- Our legal landscape around marijuana is not usually determined by neighbours, friends, or family members. Notion that marijuana is bad comes from where? Economic, religious...
What would subjectivists look at concerning prostitution?
How we look at and think about prostitutes, rather than looking at the prostitutes themselves. How powerful groups attach labels to people.
What are the 3 elements in the subjectivist critique?
1. How powerful groups attach labels to people.
2. Hidden moral judgements that are attached to that label.
3. How people who have been labelled and judged are treated in specific ways.
What deviance theory says that if enough important people say it is deviant, then it becomes deviant.
Deviance and suffering was ___ in the Pagan world.
Deviance and suffering was a result of ___ in the Christian world.
- A collective psychosis or mania.
- Episodes broke out repeatedly. Witches on the rampage, doing evil and crazy things. People taking to the streets to harm and burn the witches.
- Plagues, wars, and famines were traced back to witches.
- 100 - 200,000 executions took place during this time period.
- Began with the Roman Catholic Inquisition.
- Caught heretics and people like Galileo who put forward alternative interpretations of the empirical world.
Witches were viewed as threat to...
Why did the Church control witchcraft?
Control of witchcraft became significant reason to pay tithes and obey the rules.
True or false? The Criminal Code of Canada prohibits the use of witchcraft.
Demonic is a ___ in deviance.
Has satanist ideas been used as a defence in criminal defences?