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Flashcards in Chapter 8 Deck (67):

What are the two dimensions of mental illness?

1. The way the illness affects people's thoughts, feelings, and behaviours.
2. The social dimension -- the ways others perceive and treat those with mental illness.


Mental Disorder

A psychological, biological, or behavioural dysfunction that interferes with daily life. Alterations in thinking, mood, or behaviour...associated with significant distress and impaired functioning.


What percentage of people have mental illness, and what percentage of people know someone with a mental illness?

20 and 80, respectively.


True or false? Overall rates of mental disorder are virtually identical in men and women, as are the patterns and types of mental illness.

Partially true. The rates are basically the same, but the patterns and types differ.


What mental disorders are more common in men?

Anti-social personality disorder, substance abuse, dependency disorders, and conduct disorders.


What mental disorders are more common in women?

Common mental disorders, such as depression and anxiety.


What is the cause of common mental disorders?

Particular life stressors and negative life events.


What life stressors are more commonly found in women, leading to CMD's?

Low income or income inequality, low or subordinate social status, extensive responsibility for the daily care of others, and victimization by violence.


Social Causation Hypothesis

Suggests that more life stresses and fewer resources characterize the lives of the lower class, contributing to the emergence of mental disorders.



In Robert Merton's Strain Theory, a mode of adaptation wherein people give up on pursuing the goals as well as the legitimate means of attaining those goals. This can include alcoholism, drug use, or mental illness.


Social Selection Hypothesis

People with mental disorders can fall into lower economic strata because of their difficulties in daily functioning.


What are two possible explanations for the idea that people in lower socioeconomic classes are more likely to be mentally ill?

- Social causation hypothesis.
- Social selection hypothesis.


Social causation hypothesis seems to explain which mental disorders?

Depression, anxiety, substance use disorders, and anti-social personality disorder.


Social selection hypothesis seems to explain which mental disorders?

Schizophrenia, conduct disorders, and attention deficit disorder.



In Durkheim's functionalist theory, a state of formlessness.


Socioeconomic status, gender, and ___ are all correlated with mental illness.



What age is mental illness most likely to manifest?

High school to college, as there are sociological and psychological factors that play a role in identity formation and the dramatic nature of the transitions that occur after graduation lead to more stress. Demands of university are also particularly stressful.


Personal costs of mental illness:

- Higher rates of teen pregnancy.
- Early marriage.
- Marital instability.
- Parents' mental instability goes to kids.
- Lower educational attainment.
- Lower employment rates.
- Lower incomes.
- Financial costs.


Health costs of mental illness:

- Depression linked to heart disease.
- High blood pressure, diabetes, or cancer.


Societal costs of mental illness:

National economies suffer as a result of suicide, absenteeism, lost productivity, and absence to provide care.


Why don't people go see mental health professionals?

- Lack of services.
- Perceptions of treatment as inadequate.
- Discomfort of self-disclosure.
- Stigmatization.
- Neglect within family/communities.


In popular media, mental disorders are portrayed as...

Unattractive, aggressive, violence, criminal, and failures of life.


What is wrong with cost-of-illness estimates?

- They are not just a product of biochemistry; there are also economics and social norms.
- Fail to take into account the ways individuals with mental disorder contribute to society as parents, neighbours, and volunteers.


Cost-of-illness estimates only take on social meaning when we look at...

The ways in which we collectively view and treat people with mental illness.


1/3 of people think that if they had a mental illness, people would view them differently. Is this true?



How do mental health professionals discriminate against those with mental illness?

Instead of blaming symptoms on a mental disorder, they fail to lend credence to the physical complaints.


Why would mental health professionals be worse than the public as far as discrimination against those with mental illness go?

Because they see their clients when their symptoms are at their worst.



The process of stigmatizing oneself for a particular behaviour or characteristic.


How is mental illness medicalized?

The use of the DSM.


Map the progress of the treatment of mental health:

Treated as demonic possession, madhouses, asylums, then deinstitutionalization.


Why were madhouses created?

Not treatment or rehabilitation, but to warehouse the disordered so the society's normal citizens could feel safe and secure.


Why were asylums eradicated?

They did barbaric procedures such as lobotomies and fever therapies. There were concerns about harshness, where people questioned whether the environment of isolation and dehumanizations could possibly help them recover.



The social control of people with mental illnesses in community-based programs rather than in institutions.


Examples of medical treatment options for mental illness:

Psychotherapy, cognitive-behavioural therapy, medication, occupational therapy, and social supports.


Least Restrictive Alternative

Legislation stating that involuntary admission to a hospital can occur only if there are no reasonable non institutional alternatives.


Perceived benefits of deinstitutionalization:

- Can return to homes.
- Higher rates of recovery.
- Cost savings.


What is a flawed assumption made in deinstitutionalization?

That people have loving, supportive families.


What are the biggest problems with the deinstitutionalization movement?

- Absence of supportive families.
- Stigmatization by the community.
- Underfunding of mental health programs.
- Homelessness.


Problems with treating homeless who are also mentally ill:

Often comorbid with substance abuse as well. Not very many problems deal with homeless that are both mentally ill and abuse substances.


True or false? People fell through the cracks in the deinstitutionalization movement.



Hydraulic system between mental health system and criminal justice system:

When deinstitutionalization was not accompanied by adequate community resources, the mental health care system contracted and the prison population expanded. Expanding the extent and nature of resources within the mental health care system should reduce the prison population.


Why did reinstitutionalization emerge?

Stems from a concern with risk containment, and reducing perceived risk for a society characterized by negative perceptions of the mentally ill.


Risk Containment

Reducing the risks for individuals who may have fallen through the cracks with deinstitutionalization.


Disease Paradigm

A view of mental illness that emphasizes the symptoms of the disorder that distress and impair individuals' functioning and seeks to ameliorate those symptoms.


Discrimination Paradigm

A view of mental illness that emphasizes the role that stigmatization plays in the daily experiences of people with mental illnesses and seeks to reduce those experiences.


Trying to Pass

A stigma management technique that involves hiding the behaviour or characteristic that is stigmatized.


Divide Their Social Worlds

A stigma management technique that involves carefully managing who is and is not permitted to know about one's stigmatized behaviour or characteristic.



A stigma management technique in which individuals block an external stigmatizing force by distancing themselves from the labels they have been given.



A stigma mangement technique in which individuals actively fight back against an external stigmatizing force, such as through confronting or educating others.


What are two passive ways in which people with mental illness manage stigma?

- Trying to pass.
- Divide their social worlds.


What are two active ways in which people with mental illness manage stigma?

- Deflecting.
- Challenging.


Explain challenging stigma in both a non-confrontational and confrontational way.

- Confrontational: disputing the others' claim.
- Non-confrontational: educating others.


What happens when challenging stigma becomes personal?

Those with mental illness try to overcompensate for stigmatization, showing that they are being extra-competent compared to the average person.


Under what conditions will people actively resist stigmatization?

1. Past experience with stigma resistance.
2. Past familiarity with mental illness in acquaintance.
3. Greater coping resources (self-esteem).
4. Holding and identifying with multiple roles in daily life.
5. Less severe, more time-limited mental illnesses.


What are the 4 core strategies of WHO's Mental Health Global Action Programme?

1. Information.
2. Policy and service development.
3. Advocacy.
4. Research.


What are the 4 foci of the Mental Health Commission of Canada?

1. An anti-stigma campaign.
2. A program to reduce homelessness.
3. A knowledge exchange centre.
4. A mental health strategy.


What are some criticisms of the DSM?

- Homosexuality used to be on there.
- ADHD is over-diagnosed due to normal behaviour being misdiagnosed.
- ADHD is a function of social forces.
- DSM is political as well as medical.


How did Rosenhan demonstrate that the salient characteristics involved in psychiatric diagnoses reside more in the environment than in the individual?

Pretended to be mentally ill. Initially went in with schizophrenia-like symptoms, but acted completely normal afterwards. Kept in hospital for 19 days, released and put down as "in remission." Sanity never detected.



A cognitive, or mental, framework that helps us organize and interpret information.


Some may argue that Rosenhan's research is invalid because doctors would rather err on the side of caution. How did he dispute this?

By demonstrating that staff treated him differently throughout his stay, even though he exhibited normal behaviour after the initial assessment. Lack of interaction.


How did Rosenhan demonstrate that mental health professionals have difficulties distinguishing sane from insane in his follow-up study?

By telling a hospital he was admitting a pseudo-patient, and getting them to identify them. 191 admitted, 41 identified as having a high likelihood of being a pseudo-patient. Rosenhan admitted none.


Total Institutions

Places like prisons, concentration camps, or psychiatric hospitals where the inmates have no choice but to accept restriction and dehumanization.


In the two sides of a deviance dance, there is the view that stigmatization has negative consequences. Explain this view.

Closes doors on the normal world. Harmful effects on self-concept, which as implications for treatment outcomes and magnitude of symptoms.


In the two sides of a deviance dance, there is the view that stigmatization has positive consequences. Explain this view.

Stigmatization can improve self-concept, in that being labelled is the key factor in opportunities for effective treatment. Labelling of sick role.


Sick Role

The role that ill individuals may be assigned, under certain conditions, in which they are given a temporary reprieve from some of life's responsibilities and are not blamed for their conditions.


Do race and sex platy a role in the diagnoses and treatment of mental disorders?



What are the 3 ways in which people resist the medicalization of a mental disorder?

1. The ways some normal social behaviours have been deviantized by the DSM.
2. Broader critiques against the DSM (political dimension).
3. Inaccuracies and biases in the daily practices of mental health professionals.
4. Mental illness as a false label that denies free will.