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Flashcards in Chapter 5 Deck (98):
1

What determines what is considered deviant and normal sexuality in society?

Social processes.

2

Social processes determine who is socially typer as deviant through the processes of...

Description, evaluation, and prescription.

3

Description of Sexuality

Placed in a category because of their sexuality.

4

Evaluation of Sexuality

Judged on the basis of the category into which they have been placed.

5

Prescription of Sexuality

Made subject to particular measures of regulation of social control.

6

In the contemporary sociology of sexuality, the ___ perspective predominates.

Constructionist.

7

Since the constructionist perspective predominates on sexuality, the ___ and ___ theoretical perspectives are the lenses throughout which sexuality is more often studied.

Interactionist, critical.

8

Critical perspetives analyze the ways that power influences people's understandings and attributions of meaning, emphasizing...

Foucault's power-reflexive work.

9

Elite Discourse

The knowledge about sexuality that is conveyed by those in authority and that subsequently comes to be perceived as truth.

10

True or false? Sexual behaviour and sexual identity are one and the same.

False, someone can engage in a sexual behaviour without being a certain sexual identity.

11

How do Foucauldian sociologists study sexuality?

Analyze the ways that scientific, political, legal, religious, and media discourses of sexuality shape the ways audience members can imagine organizing their lives.

12

How was sexuality treated in ancient Athens?

Aristocratic males were permitted marital sex for the purpose of producing male heirs, as well as sexual relationships with other women, slaves, foreigners, and aristocratic adolescent boys for the purpose of pleasure. However, sexual relations between two persons occupying the same social class was not acceptable.

13

In Aboriginal culture, sexuality was taboo and not brought up often. True or false?

False, it was considered to be inextricably interwoven with all other aspects of social life.

14

What four components did the Aboriginals believe life consisted of, and therefore sexuality consisted of?

Physical, intellectual, emotional, and spiritual.

15

Nadleeh

In some Aboriginal cultures, masculine female-bodied, or feminine male-bodied members of the community.

16

Berdache

A derogatory term used by European explorers to refer to biological males who assumed female roles in some Aboriginal cultures.

17

Describe the European attitude at the time of colonization concerning sexuality:

It was for the purpose of reproduction, and even the notions of pleasure was frowned upon. Sexuality was sinful, requiring careful and stringent control.

18

The Aboriginal women with whom early European settlers formed relationships were called ___.

Les femmes du pays.

19

Why is the missionary position named as such?

Aboriginal women were taught by church fathers what the "right" way to have sexual intercourse was.

20

Les Femmes Du Pays

Country wives, or Aboriginal women who formed intimate relationships with male European fur traders and settlers.

21

Why is the missionary position named as such?

Aboriginal women were taught by church fathers what the "right" way to have sexual intercourse was.

22

Describe how sexuality was primarily associated with reproduction within a powerful structure of kinship:

Slaves were expected to be continually sexually available for male members of the owner's family. Slave owners determined who was permitted to mate with whom. Chose "studs" to impregnate them.

23

Who regulated sexuality and said that it had to be in the context of emotional intimacy in marriage?

The Christian church.

24

Why would a young couple with a premarital pregnancy respect the young woman's father's directive?

Because the kinship system was considered a legitimate regulator of sexuality and reproduction.

25

In the 18th Century in the U.S., deviating individuals were more often seen as having made an error in judgement. It was the ___ that was deviant, not the ___.

Behaviour, individual.

26

How did socioeconomic class affect punishments for sexual deviance?

Those with more resources often received less severe punishments.

27

How did gender affect punishments for sexual deviance?

- Men, who owned property, were more likely to be fined, while women, who did not own property, were more likely to be physically punished.
- Women were also more likely than men to be punished for things like adultery.

28

How did racial hierarchies affect the punishments for sexual deviance?

Black men convicted of raping white women (but not black women) were castrated. White men were not castrated, and it was rare that they could be considered to "rape" a black woman.

29

How did the way sexuality was perceived change in the late 18th Century and throughout the 19th Century?

- Urbanization and wage labour progressed rapidly, creating anonymous lives distanced from family members and community surveillance.
- Religious shifts transferred responsibility of salvation onto the individual instead of the church and state.
- Economically based and arranged marriages declined in favour of "love" marriages.

30

How did the way sexuality was perceived change in the late 18th Century and throughout the 19th Century?

- Urbanization and wage labour progressed rapidly, creating anonymous lives distanced from family members and community surveillance.
- Religious shifts transferred responsibility of salvation onto the individual instead of the church and state.
- Economically based and arranged marriages declined in favour of "love" marriages.

31

What marked the shift of viewing sexuality as inherently bad to inherently good?

The Enlightenment and the view of nature (and sexuality) as "good."

32

The Enlightenment led to the shift from sexuality as ___ to ___.

Reproductive, emotional intimacy.

33

How did women increase their role in regulating sexuality?

Through their efforts and reducing pregnancy rates.

34

Why would women have many babies in the past?

The high infant mortality rate meant that they had to have a lot of babies to ensure that a sufficient number of them survived into childhood to contribute to the maintenance of the family.

35

Which social agents gained more power as the role of the church, state, and community declined?

Women, the medical profession, social reformers, and culture industries.

36

Why did women begin to regulate sexuality in the 19th Century?

Infant mortality rates declined, but perinatal and postnatal mortality rates for women did not.

37

How did women regulate sexuality in the 19th Century?

Abstaining from sex with their husbands for extended periods of time and by using contraception.

38

True or false? The medical profession was growing in size, knowledge, and legitimized power during the 18th Century.

False, this was in the 19th Century.

39

How did the medical profession come to have a more encompassing role in the regulation of sexuality?

By "scientifically" defining sexual deviance.

40

What was the dominant theme in the contributions of science to the sexual culture of the 19th Century?

Self-control.

41

How did sexuality relate to the "self-made man"?

Controlling sexual passions would enable him to focus his energies on economic success.

42

How did the culture industry contribute to the sexual culture of the era?

Spread of the sex industry such as pornography.

43

How did the culture industry regulate sexual deviance?

Young women were viewed as being extremely vulnerable to the sexual appetites of unsavoury young men in growing cities.

44

Social Purity, or Sex Hygiene Movements

During the Victorian era, moral entrepreneurs who equated social purity with sexual purity and who sought to solve problems such as prostitution, divorce, and illegitimacy; also known as the social purity movement.

45

Social purity movements were aimed at...

Lower classes.

46

Why were social purity movements aimed at lower classes?

Because they were presumed to be sexual depraved as well.

47

Why were social purity movements aimed at lower classes?

Because they were presumed to be sexual depraved as well.

48

How were different races portrayed sexually by media in the Victorian era?

Black man's sexuality was portrayed as dangerous and uncontrollable, making them liable to rape white women. Chinese men were also perceived as a threat to young white women, who might be lured by what was perceived as men's more innocent countenance and by the opium they might supply.

49

Why did the state's role in controlling sexuality decline in the early 19th Century?

The meaning sexuality changed, and responsibility for controlling sexual deviance shifted to individuals and their own self-control.

50

Why did the state's role in controlling sexuality grow in the 19th Century?

Moral entrepreneurs identified and drew attention to sexual "diseases" (such as sodomoy and homosexuality), the sex industry, and female sexual exploitation.

51

In the 20th Century, the sexual culture of North America transformed, shifting the focus from ___ ___ to ___ ___.

Emotional intimacy, personal fulfillment.

52

Who is the predominant contributor to sexual culture?

Mainstream media, including TV, movies, music, advertising, etc..

53

Radical Feminist view of exotic dancing:

All sex work is exploitative of women within the patriarchal structure in which we operate as a society, often taking a view of the sex worker as a victim.

54

Sex-Radical Feminist view of exotic dancing:

Sex work is subversive of this structure and maintains that the decision to participate in sex work is a choice that women make, and that they further exercise there agency through the individual negotiations that occur within that context.

55

What support is there for the victimization (radical feminist) hypothesis concerning sex work?

Substance abuse, life histories of physical/sexual/emotional abuse, low self-esteem, and backgrounds characterized by risky sexual behaviours are common among exotic dancers. Financial desperation is a factor.

56

What are the 4 types of female exotic dancers?

1. Survivors.
2. Nonconformists.
3. Dancers.
4. Workers.

57

Survivors

Female exotic dancers who have extensive histories of childhood abuse and who feel forced into the industry because of few available alternatives.

58

Nonconformists

Female exotic dancers who come from privileged, educated backgrounds and who have the freedom to enter and leave the industry as they wish.

59

Dancers

Female exotic dancers who have considerable training in dance and who enjoy the artistic and creative expression of the industry.

60

Workers

Female exotic dancers primarily from working-class backgrounds who become exotic dancers because of the money they can earn.

61

What is the individual level of negotiating power relationships in exotic dancing?

Power manifests itself in the interactions between dancers and customers.

62

How do dancers take agency of their own power?

Perceive male customers as being lonely, use their bodies to manipulate customers and earn more money, and create a fantasy relationship based on counterfeit intimacy. "Confess" to a false identity and background.

63

When dancers' boundaries change, who does the dancer feel violated by?

Themselves.

64

Why would dancers feel violated by themselves when boundaries change?

The gap grows between their ideal selves and perceived selves.

65

Why would dancers agree to change their boundaries if they know if will lead to themselves feeling violated?

Feel like they don't have anything else to give up, feel like they don't really have an identity.

66

What is the organizational level of negotiating power relationships in exotic dancing?

Rules governing the customer and dancer behaviour, such as customers being prohibited from touching dancers and dancers having to share tips with servers, bouncers, and bartenders.

67

How do dancers use rules to their advantage?

They give extra tips to the bartender, and receives intel on which customers are big spenders. Bartenders also give stronger drinks to those customers. Extra tips to the bouncer makes him look the other way. Can use counterfeit intimacy to convince customer he is special.

68

What is the institutional level of negotiating power relationships in exotic dancing?

Structure of capitalism. McDonaldization of society.

69

McDonaldization of Society

Four components: efficiency, predictability, control, and calculability.

70

Efficiency in exotic dancing:

Efficient use of time, trying to interact with as many customers as possible. Cues for maxing out wallet.

71

Predictability in exotic dancing:

Product specifications, where a specific standard of beauty is applied in hiring dancers. More elite the club, the higher the standard of beauty.

72

Control in exotic dancing:

Standard of beauty is enhanced through control by the club owner or manager and the dancer herself. Plastic surgery encouraged or financially supported.

73

Calculability in exotic dancing:

Dancers' song selection and timing. Dancers select songs of particular length to tease customers and make them want more.

74

Which of the following is false? Exotic dancers are exploited through a patriarchal structure as suggested by radical feminists. Exotic dancers are agents of choice and power within their everyday lives as workers.

Both are true.

75

Human Trafficking

Illegal trade in human beings for the purposes of sexual exploitation, forced labour, or slavery.

76

Pornography

Forms of media or popular culture that include explicit sex.

77

What is wrong with the statement that we know pornography when we see it?

When people see it in strikingly different places, no one really knows it at all.

78

Functional Definition (of Pornography)

Forms of media or popular culture used by an individual for the purposes of sexual arousal.

79

Genre Definition (of Pornography)

Media or popular culture products created for the purposes of arousing the consumer.

80

Labelling Definition (of Pornography)

Sexually explicit materials deemed obscene according to community standards.

81

What is the question that is asked in a community standards test when determining what is obscene?

What a majority of Canadians would not tolerate other people seeing.

82

Child Pornography

Any representation of someone under the age of 18 engaged in explicit sexual activity or any representation of someone under the age of 18, "the dominant characteristic of which is the depiction, for a sexual purpose, of a sexual organ or the anal region."

83

Sexting

Sending nude or partially nude photographs of oneself using forms of electronic communication.

84

Is there evidence of a relationship between adolescent consumption of pornography and sexual attitudes, sexual behaviours, and self-concept?

Research is contradictory.

85

What are the two areas that research has found a correlation between pornography and sex?

1. Correlation between consumption of violent pornography and sexually aggressive behaviours.
2. Correlation between pornography and adolescent's self-concepts.

86

What are the two areas that research has found a correlation between pornography and sex?

1. Correlation between consumption of violent pornography and sexually aggressive behaviours.
2. Correlation between pornography and adolescent's self-concepts.

87

Pornography has become increasingly ___.

Normalized.

88

How has pornography research shifted?

From an effects-based approach to a more complex analysis, looking at the consumption and significance of pornography for specific groups and communities.

89

What are some gender differences when it comes to consuming pornography?

- Males are more likely to access pornography than women.
- 2/3 of men consider pornography use somewhat or completely normal.
- Males express more positive attitudes towards it.

90

How does the spectre of deviance remain in pornography?

- Even if it is arousing, some women find it disgusting.
- Some male users are tired of it.
- Males and females are portrayed unequally.
- Missing "love" in pornography.

91

What were nineteenth century Canadian debates over pornography really about?

Relationships between women and men in general and between middle-class and upper-class women and men in particular.

92

What were the suffragettes' view of prostitution?

Women and men were equal, and prostitutes were victims, not of deceitful men who seduced them, but of bullies who forced them into prostitution.

93

How did the suffragettes try to control prostitution?

Outlawed it.

94

Oppression Paradigm

Equates prostitution with the epitome of male violence against women in a patriarchal society -- a rape that's paid for.

95

What is wrong with the oppression paradigm?

It considers sex workers as incapable of being agents of choice or power. Based on moral rhetoric.

96

2 issues with the research of those who support the oppression paradigm:

1. Voices who disagree with the paradigm are discounted by researchers.
2. Research within the paradigm tend to make sweeping generalizations. Anecdotal evidence generalized.

97

Polymorphous Paradigm

Recognizes the varied working conditions and experiences of different groups of sex workers in varying arenas.

98

What is wrong with current prostitution laws?

Although they fall short of outlawing prostitution, they outlaw many things surrounding it and make the industry unsafe for sex workers.