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Flashcards in Chapter 6 Deck (95):
1

Troubling Youth

Youth who are considered to be primarily a threat to others or to society, such as through criminal activity.

2

Troubled Youth

Youth who are considered to be primarily a threat to themselves, such as through substance use.

3

Youth

A transitional time in life between childhood and maturity.

4

Youth in terms of social status:

Youth refers to anyone who has not achieved full economic and social independence.

5

Youth according to the YCJA:

12-17.

6

What is the gulf between reality and perception concerning youth crime?

The extent and nature of youth crime is far from appreciating the frightening picture painted by the popular mind by media images and recent changes to government legislation.

7

Is there a criminal offence category for which youth constitute the majority of offenders?

No.

8

Are youth the most overrepresented in the criminal justice system?

No.

9

True or false? Youth are responsible for almost 85 percent of violent crimes.

False, adults are.

10

Moral Panics

An exaggerated and sensationalized concern over a particular phenomenon, characterized by heightened concern, hostility toward the offending group, a certain level of consensus that there is a real threat, disproportionality, and volatility.

11

Disproportionality

The attention given to the phenomenon is far greater than the level of objective threat that the phenomenon presents.

12

Volatility

It erupts suddenly and then may just suddenly disappear, although some may become institutionalized and therefore appear time and time again.

13

Volatility

It erupts suddenly and then may just suddenly disappear, although some may become institutionalized and therefore appear time and time again.

14

How does differential association theory explain youth crime?

Youth learn deviant techniques and motives from peers.

15

How does social bonds theory explain youth crime?

Youth form bonds with others that restrain most of us from crime.

16

How does self control theory explain youth crime?

The level of self-control developed early in life determines criminality.

17

How does Merton's strain theory explain youth crime?

Structural inequalities in access to legitimate opportunities lead to youth crime.

18

How does differential opportunity theory explain youth crime?

Illegitimate opportunities lead to youth crime.

19

How does social learning theory explain youth crime?

The system of rewards, punishments, and role models we have been exposed to in life explain youth crime.

20

What is the most important factor in determining delinquent behaviour in youth?

Quality and effectiveness of parenting. Link between structure of household and youth delinquency has been shown to be relatively weak.

21

Parenting Style

An overall approach to parenting, including supervision, parental control, and emotional ties between parent and child.

22

What is the best parenting style?

Moderate control of the child's behaviour combined with moderate levels of supervision and strong, positive, emotional ties between parent and child.

23

What do children develop as a result of good parenting?

Their own internal moral standards and higher levels of self-control.

24

Good parenting involves...

Having high expectations for children, having knowledge of and interest in who the children are socializing with and what they are doing, as well as clearly explained rule and consequences for breaking those rules. Also, some flexibility and substantial levels of warmth and affection.

25

Family variables not only influence the child outcomes themselves, they also affect ___ influence.

Peer.

26

What is the single most effective predictor of criminal activity among youth?

Criminal activity among friends.

27

Most research on youth gangs is conducted in ___.

America.

28

What are the two broad streams of research on youth gangs?

1. Focuses on the causation or motivation on why gangs form, why join, and why they engage in particular behaviours.
2. Focuses in various aspects of the social construction of the "gang problem" such as how and why moral panics about gangs emerge and the problems with defining gangs.

29

How does the strain theory explain involvement in youth gangs?

Rather than in economic terms, youth who are in lower classes measured up against a middle class measuring rod that is unattainable instead turn to expressive, destructive, non-utilitarian behaviours.

30

How does the differential opportunity theory explain involvement in youth gangs?

Particular illegitimate opportunities result in the formation of gangs that may be economically enterprising, violent, or drug using and retreatist.

31

What is a more subjective explanation for why gangs form?

Youth gangs are sources of identity and expressions of resistance among youth who are structurally marginalized.

32

How does the integrationist theory explain involvement in youth gangs?

Individual members within a gang have different interests, motivations for gang membership, and understandings of what it means to be a gang member.

33

Ethnographic Research

Research in which the researcher embeds her or himself with the groups being studied for an extended period of time.

34

Material Incentives

A motivation for gang membership involving the desire to make more, or more consistent, money.

35

Recreation

A motivation for gang membership involving opportunities for entertainment and socializing.

36

Place of Refuge and Camouflage

A motivation for gang membership involving a level of anonymity, removing a sense of personal responsibility for illegal activities.

37

Physical Protection

A motivation for gang membership involving increased safety from the known dangers of the neighbourhood.

38

Time to Resist

A motivation for gang membership that involves a statement of rejection to society, a rejection of the type of lives being offered.

39

Commitment to the Community

A motivation for gang membership that involves continuing a family or neighbourhood tradition.

40

What are some motivations for youth to join gangs according to ethnographic research?

Material incentives, recreation, place of refuge and camouflage, physical protection, time to resist, and commitment to the community.

41

What did Grekul find in her 2007 study?

Weak bonds of attachment, commitment to conventional society, involvement in conventional society, and beliefs that support conventional society play a significant role in gang membership.

42

Gang

Any denotable group of adolescents or young adults who (a) are generally perceived as a distinct aggregation by others in the neighbourhood, (b) recognize themselves as a denotable group (almost invariably with a group name), and (c) have been involved in a sufficient number of (illegal) incidents.

43

Gang Problem

The socially constructed representations of gangs that are communicated through the media.

44

Racialize

The process by which representations of social phenomena become associated with specific racial or ethnic groups.

45

Instead of race being a problem in gang membership portrayals by the media in Quebec, ___ is used.

Age.

46

How do some groups benefit from moral panic?

By fear mongering, they can get votes, obtain increased funding, or have preferable legislation passed.

47

How can moral panic benefit gangs?

Provides them with free publicity and may thereby increase their membership and power in the community.

48

How can moral panic benefit gangs?

Provides them with free publicity and may thereby increase their membership and power in the community.

49

How does the YCJA attempt to deal with youth crime?

Toughen up and jail the bad guys and girls for a very long time. Keep them away from our children and families.

50

Retroactive programs for youth gangs:

Try to convince existing gang members to leave their lifestyle.

51

Preventative programs for youth gangs:

Operates with schools, teaching basic life skills, social skills, or providing community services.

52

Why were social reformers during the industrialization period concerned about children?

Working class parents were working long hours, and children were often left unsupervised.

53

Which act had parens patriae as its foundation?

JDA.

54

Parens Patriae

Parent of the country, or the child welfare approach to youth crime that was embodied in the Juvenile Delinquents Act.

55

The JDA had ___ ___ as its foundation.

Parens patriae.

56

Why was parens patriae more like a child welfare piece of legislation rather than a measure of controlling youth crime?

It was believed that with the right assistance and correct teaching young criminals could be set on the right path in life.

57

The YOA marked a shift in treating youth from "juvenile delinquents" to ___ ___.

Young offenders.

58

What did the YOA tighten up on?

Chronic or violent young offenders are treated more stringently, while first-time and nonviolent young offenders are more likely to be treated via community and other measures.

59

What are the underlying principles in the Youth Justice Renewal Initiative?

Prevention, meaningful consequences for youth crime, and intensified rehabilitation and reintegration.

60

What are the most commonly used substances in Canada?

Alcohol, tobacco cannabis, and hallucinogens.

61

Why are youth smoking rate declines an indicator of a decline in adult smokers later on?

Because most adult smokers starter smoking prior to the age of 18.

62

What is the primary motivation for smoking for youth?

Friends and peer pressure.

63

What is the primary motivation for smoking for youth?

Friends and peer pressure.

64

Why is smoking a public health issue not only because of the health dangers, but also because of its association with other forms of substance use?

Those who smoke are more likely to use marijuana as well.

65

What is the most widely used psychoactive drug among Canadian youth excluding alcohol?

Marijuana.

66

What is a reason for drug use that youth and adults share?

To relieve stress, as a form of escapism, or as a social activity.

67

What is a reason for drug use that is exclusive to youth?

To satisfy their curiosity, show their independence, or become part of a peer group.

68

What are the 4 factors that determine whether drug use becomes problematic?

Individual, community, family, and school.

69

Individual factors that determine whether drug use becomes problematic:

Genetic and environmental predispositions, degree of personal competence (feeling in control or optimistic), connection with violent behaviour, and gang involvement.

70

Community factors that determine whether drug use becomes problematic:

Norms about substance use, prevalence of crime, price and availability of substances, economic conditions, and nature of peers.

71

Family factors that determine whether drug use becomes problematic:

Parenting style, degree of parent-child emotional attachment, and family history in relationship to substance use.

72

School factors that determine whether drug use becomes problematic:

Academic success, reading skills, problem-solving abilities, participation in extracurricular activities, and feelings of belonging.

73

What is the problems with programs like "Just Say No"?

Do not take into account realistic situations or lifestyles. Does not provide tools they need to deal with situations they encounter in their lives.

74

How must drug programs be structured?

Comprehensive, targeting factors at all levels. Age-appropriate, occur prior to the child's likely exposure to particular types of drugs.

75

Alcohol use is a ___ behaviour for youth in Canadian society.

Normative.

76

What is the average age of first drunkenness?

14.

77

Why has the alcohol industry been criticized in its role for facilitating youth drinking?

By airing advertisements targeted at youth, or creating "alcopops."

78

Binge Drinking

The consumption of five or more drinks (for males) or four or more drinks (for females) in one drinking session.

79

How has drinking in college become more polarized?

There has been an increase in the number of students who binge drink, but also an increase in the number of students who abstain.

80

Binge drinking is most prevalent when in the school year?

At the beginning and after exams.

81

Binge drinking is most common in which year of university?

First.

82

Is binge drinking related to alcoholism?

No.

83

What is the problem with current binge drinking control methods for college students?

It mirrors approaches for controlling alcohol abuse in society at large, which presumes that university binge drinking is the same as any other type of problem drinking.

84

Binge drinking among college students is a product of ___ ___.

University enrolment.

85

Prevention Paradox

The growing efforts to help "problem" drinkers on university campuses haven to reduced the extent of harm caused by alcohol consumption, because most of the harms are caused by low- to moderate-risk drinkers.

86

What is the most effective way to deal with university binge drinking?

Population prevention approach.

87

Population Prevention Approach

Targets the university environment as a whole, rather than trying to change the behaviour of particular individuals.

88

Give examples of a population prevention approach at universities:

- Regulates the prices of alcohol on university campuses.
- Mandatory responsible beverage service.
- Limitations on the number of campus outlets that sell alcohol.
- Policies governing the overall accessibility and availability of alcohol.

89

At-Risk Youth

Youth who have been identified as having a greater likelihood of negative outcomes.

90

Risk Society

A society in which knowledge experts warn us that risks that must be identified and managed are everywhere around us.

91

Science of Risk

The processes by which a variety of professionals are trained to identify populations that are "at risk" of various negative outcomes and implement programming that will manage those risks.

92

Generation Gap

The perception that conflicts are inherent between the adult and youth generations.

93

Sturm Und Drang

Storm and stress, perceived by G. Stanley Hall as being inherent during adolescence.

94

When were the "original teenagers" predominant and why?

Born during and immediately after WWII. Teenagers in the 1950's. Sheer number, economic propensity, and generational cohesion.

95

Why might a new and significant generation gap emerge in the future?

Our lives are getting busier, less family time. Less attention from family members unless something extraordinarily bad or good is done.