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Flashcards in Chapter 3 Deck (64):
1

What are the strengths of positivist theory?

Search for causation, which facilitates identification of the most effective means of achieving fixed ends.

2

What do subjective views of deviance claim?

We cannot know deviance when we see it, and instead must be told that a behaviour or characteristic is deviant.

3

Interpretive Theories

Theories that draw attention to people's intersubjective understandings of the world around them, other people, and themselves.

4

Critical Theories

Theories that focus on the power relations that underlie the creation of social rules, and that have an interest in emancipation and social justice.

5

Symbolic Interactionism

The theoretical perspective that describes society as composed of social interaction, which occurs via communication through symbols; the foundation for all interpretive theories.

6

Role Taking

In symbolic interactionist theory, the process by which we vicariously place ourselves in the roles of others in order to see the world from their points of view, which then influences our own attitudes and actions.

7

Looking-Glass Self

According to symbolic interactionist theory, the process by which our assumptions about what other people think of us influences what we think about ourselves and how we look or act.

8

Significant Others

In symbolic interactionist theory, people who are personally important to us.

9

Generalized Other

In symbolic interactionist theory, our perception of the viewpoints if generic "people" in society.

10

Labelling Theory

Interpretive theories that describe the process by which individuals are labelled as deviant, which then has implications for how other treat them and their own subsequent behaviours and identities.

11

Straightedge

Abstaining from self-indulgent aspects of life.

12

Tagging

In Tannenbaum's labelling theory, the deviant label that we initially attach to an individual's behaviour.

13

Dramatization of Evil

In Tannenbaum's labelling theory, the judgment that it is no longer a particular behaviour that is deviant, but rather it is the person her or himself that is deviant.

14

Give an example of how tagging can lead to a dramatization of evil.

If someone does something evil (tagging), they can become considered as an evil person (dramatization of evil).

15

Primary Deviance

In Lemert's labelling theory, the occasional rule breaking everyone engages in, which is seldom noticed and rarely caught.

16

Secondary Deviance

A lifestyle and identity based on chronic rule breaking.

17

Master Status

A core characteristic by which others identify a person.

18

Stigmatization

The process of exclusion that follows a deviant master status.

19

Dramaturgy

The interpretive school of thought that suggests social life is similar to performing in the theatre, wherein individuals have front-stage selves and back-stage selves.

20

Front-Stage Selves

In the dramaturgical approach, the social roles people play when when in front of a variety of audiences.

21

Back-Stage Selves

In the dramaturgical approach, individuals' identities and behaviours when they are no longer in front of any audience, but rather are alone or with those who are closest to them.

22

Spoiled Identity

In the dramaturgical approach, the stigmatization faced when an individual assumes a deviant role on the front stage.

23

Identity/Impression Management

Techniques used by individuals to manage their stigmatization.

24

What are some techniques for identity or impression management?

Humour, educating, defiance, cowering, passing.

25

Disintegrative Shaming

The process by which deviantized persons are rejected by the community.

26

Reintegrative Shaming

Individuals are temporarily stigmatized for their deviant acts, but then accepted back into the community.

27

Tertiary Deviance

Following a person's transition to secondary deviance, his or her efforts to resist a deviant label and instead redefine normal in a way that includes the deviantized behaviour or characteristic.

28

Deviant Career

An interpretive theory of deviance that claims deviance emerges, progresses through stages, and changes over time, similar to the developmental stages of a career.

29

Career Contingencies

In the theory of the deviant career, significant turning points that influence the directions that people take at various points in the deviant career.

30

What is the primary criticism of interpret theories?

Fail to address the social structure and its role in the processes surrounding deviance and normality.

31

Three criticisms of labelling theories:

1. Only studies youth.
2. Only formal labels studied.
3. Transition from primary to secondary deviance not addressed.

32

How has research integrated interpretive theories with other nonstructural positivist theories in the context of exotic dancers?

Dividing the social world, techniques of neutralization, denial of injury, appeal to higher loyalties, condemning the condemners.

33

It has been suggested that interpretive theories are not, in fact, theories and are more like...

Processes.

34

Critical Theories

Theories that focus on the power relations that underlie the creation of social rules, and that have an interest in emancipation and social justice.

35

Praxis

The Marxist view that social scientists have a responsibility to use their work in pursuit of practical, emancipatory goals.

36

Bourgeoise

In Marxist conflict theory, the owners of the means of economic production.

37

Proletariat

In Marxist conflict theory, the employees of the owners of the means of production.

38

Instrumental Marxism

A form of Marxism that proposes social rules are created to serve the interests of the powerful, becoming tools to control the proletariat.

39

Structural Marxism

A form of Marxism that proposes social rules are created to protect the capitalist economic system and may then be applied to members of the proletariat or bourgeoise.

40

3 commonalities between Marxists:

1. Social rules of not emerge out of consensus but rather out of conflict and serve the interests of the most influential groups in society.
2. Members of powerful groups are less likely to break the rules because the rules were created to serve them.
3. Propose that members of less powerful groups are likely to break rules.

41

Why are members of less powerful groups likely to break rules?

Because (1) their sense of oppression and alienation causes them to act out in rule-breaking ways, or (2) because social rules have defined the acts of the powerless as deviant in the first place.

42

Who came up with conflict theory?

Karl Marx.

43

Pluralistic Conflict Theory

Focuses on multiple axes of inequality that make up the structure of society based on conflicts between various economic, religious, ethnic, political, and social groups.

44

Culture Conflict Theory

Claims that in societies having multiple, diverse cultural groups, there will be multiple sets of norms that may conflict with each other.

45

Group Conflict Theory

Extends conflict assumptions beyond cultural groups to a wide range of other groups. Multiple groups struggle for power.

46

Who did Turk characterize as the two groups struggling in society?

Those who are in position of authority and those who are subject to authority.

47

Ideology

In conflict theories, the worldview held by society's powerful groups.

48

Hegemony

In conflict theories, the dominant way of seeing and understanding the world, as determined by the ideology of powerful groups and then taught to citizens as common sense.

49

False Consciousness

In conflict theories, the false sense of freedom held by powerless groups.

50

Power-Reflexive Theories

Built on a foundation that emphasizes the intertwining of knowledge and power. All claims to knowledge are socially situated, embedded within relations of power.

51

Discourse

A body of knowledge, or all that is "known" about a particular phenomenon.

52

Panopticon

A prison design that enabled guards to observe prisoners at all times and yet did not allow prisoners to definitively know whether they were being watched or not.

53

How did Foucault use the idea of the panopticon?

He suggested that the process of industrialization and bureaucratization have created a panoptical society. Numerous mechanisms of social control to ensure "normal" behaviour.

54

Feminist Theories

Underscore the fact that the bodies of knowledge and the norms by which we judge deviance and normality vary for women and men.

55

Postmodern Theories

Based on the notion of rejection of overarching theories of society, rejection of social categorization, and rejection of the possibility of truth.

56

Skeptical Postmodernism

A form of postmodern theory that postulates knowledge is not possible and only chaos and meaningless exist.

57

Affirmative Postmodernism

A form of postmodern theory that deconstructs master narratives, overarching theories, or knowledge and focuses analysis on the local and specific.

58

Tenets of postmodernism:

Lack of a moral code and the creation of subjects that are incapable of critical judgement.

59

Focus of conflict theories:

Social structures that create an opposition between the powerful and the powerless.

60

Focus of power-reflexive theories:

Emphasize the intertwining of power relations and claims to knowledge.

61

Focus of feminist theories:

Gender bias embedded in most sociological knowledge claims and the historical oppression of women.

62

Focus of postmodern theories:

"End of the individual" and a rejection of the possibility of "truth."

63

How have conflict theories been criticized?

Failing to recognize the consensus that does exist in society regarding many laws and rules. More complete theory should be able to deal with both conflict and consensus.

64

What common criticism is there between critical theories and interpretive theories?

More of a process than a theory.