Flashcards in Lecture 1 Deck (58):
- Controversy surrounding him carrying son while feeding crocodile.
- Got into trouble, invited to talk shows. Bad parent?
- Initially, Irwin was defensive. However, he eventually made an apology.
- Other half of argument was that he has certain parental rights.
- How is this any different than father throwing child while in swimming pool?
- Former naval officer and fighter pilot.
- Came out as being gay.
- Because of this, he was dishonourably discharged.
- “Don’t ask, don’t tell policy."
- Became prosecutor, was in line for the District Court.
- However, opponents said he would use his homosexuality and get involved in activism.
- Got mobbed by onlookers.
- Indicted in 2011 for misappropriating campaign funds to cover up an affair.
- He presented this pure, wholesome white bread image to American public.
- His wife was suffering from breast cancer at the same time.
- Also impregnated mistress. Convinced loyal campaign aide to protect the baby, and Edwards paid out the mistress.
- Is now a personal injury lawyer in the middle of nowhere.
- Hosted successful show “Politically Incorrect.”
- After 9/11 attacks, Bush said that the terrorists responsible were cowards.
- Mar’s guest disputed this claim, saying that the terrorists were actually warriors.
- “We have been cowards by shooting cruise missiles from 2000 miles away.”
- White House Press Secretary denounced Mar.
What are the building blocks of society according to the sociology of deviance?
Judgements of others.
True or false? Most deviant behaviour is also illegal.
False, most deviant behaviour is not illegal.
The sociology of deviance aims to determine deviance within a society comprised of ___.
What is a common phrase used to describe the sociology of deviance?
"Nuts, sluts, and perverts."
What are some examples of broader notions of deviance?
- Adult novelty stores.
- Couples who are childless.
- People who choose not to have sex.
A poll on students revealed that students tend to emphasize ___ when talking about deviance.
A poll on the public outside of the student body revealed that...
The notion of deviance is much broader.
Deviating from accepted norms.
What is the opposite of deviance?
Normal and average.
In mythology, was deviance treated as a bad thing?
No, danger is not only being too deviant, but also becoming too close to average.
What historical event made deviance seem bad?
The prevalence of religions like Christianity and Judaism. If you did something bad, the devil caused it.
What are the 3 ingredients that are needed for deviance to take place?
1. Having to break some sort of rule.
2. Someone has to judge what you did as wrong.
3. Has to be some type of consequence.
Anything we do can be perceived as deviant depending on...
Our social circle.
Describe some acts that are perceived as deviant fairly universality:
- Doing drugs while pregnant.
What is the problem of definitions in deviance?
How to quantify and qualify deviance.
What is the general trend when it comes to defining deviance?
Shift from objective to subjective definition of deviance.
Objective Definition of Deviance
Presence of particular characteristics define deviance.
The ___ definition of deviance enables people to recognize deviance when they see it -- something inherent about an act that tells us something weird is going on.
Subjective Definition of Deviance
There is no particular characteristic that defines deviance.
The ___ definition of deviance does not allow us to necessarily recognize deviance when we see it.
The ___ definition of deviance requires someone to tell us that something is deviant.
True or false? The objective and subjective definitions of deviance exist in a dichotomy, and are mutually exclusive.
False, they exist on a spectrum. Even if you take the objective approach, you are still going to find disagreement over what that inherent thing is. Judge saying "I know pornography when I see it."
What are the objectivist ways of determining whether something is deviant or not?
- Statistical rarity.
- Social harm.
- Negative societal reaction.
- Normative violations.
Example of statistical rarity method of determining deviance:
Because smoking rates are going down, it is deviant.
What are the limitations to the statistical rarity method of determining deviance?
- There is no agreement over what constitutes “rare.” How many grains of sand make a pile?
- Things that are statistically common are not considered acceptable.
- Things that are rare are not necessarily treated as deviant. Sports prodigies like Sidney Crosby.
The harm to whom is judged in the social harm method of determining deviance?
Individual or society.
What are the types of harm that can be inflicted in the social harm method of determining deviance?
Physical, emotional, social (crimes), harm to our understanding of the world and our place in it.
True or false? What is harmful is predetermined and does not change over time.
False, perceptions of harm change over time. Examples include smoking, marijuana, and masturbation.
Masturbation should be taught in schools? America was not ready for that message. Surgeon General forced to resign. What is this an example of?
Perceptions of harm changing over time.
What is hard deviance?
Deviance that is harmful.
What is soft deviance?
Deviance that is unharmful.
True or false? Harm is in the eye of the beholder.
True or false? Reactions to deviance may cause more harm than the individual behaviours. Give an example.
True, Robert Dziekanski was Tasered to death by RCMP in Vancouver Airport.
Statistical rarity and social harm models are more often used by ___ and ___ than ___.
The public and politicians than sociologists.
What is the negative social reaction method of determining deviance?
Something is deviant if society's masses react negatively (for example, with anger, hatred, or disgust).
Give an example of how the negative societal reaction method of determine deviance is flawed:
In the 1930's America, black people were deviant. The tide of public opinion can shift very easily.
The negative societal reaction method implies ___ practice, which is not necessarily the case.
Why is the negative societal reaction method not democratic?
Because some voices have more impact than others. Scientists, politicians, public intellectuals, and rich people have more power. Referendums are not used often.
Give an example of an issue that has public support, but is outlawed due to policy decisions made by those in power.
Which objective way of determining deviance has the most credibility?
Give an example of the normative violation method of determining deviance:
- Making sure there is a urinal beside you and the next guy.
- If not, stare straight at the wall.
- Keep your pants up.
What is the normative violation method of determining deviance?
A violation of a norm held in certain social circles or by a majority of the members of society at large.
A standard of what a human being should or should not think or do under given circumstances.
How is a norm different from rules?
They don’t necessarily come to us as rules. We just kind of know that there are certain things you aren’t supposed to do.
Give an example of a minor norm:
Saying thank you when someone holds the door for you.
Something is deviant when ___ are violated.
Give an example of deviance that occurs when norms are violated:
- Not tipping when it is expected, tipping when it isn’t expected.
- Wearing your clothing backwards.
Are norms universal?
No. This used to be the discourse but they are now thought of to be culturally and historically specific.
What is a problem with the current way norms are viewed?
Even if norms are viewed to be culturally and historically specific, they are viewed as static when in fact they may be fluid.
What are the limitations with the normative violation method of determining deviance?
- Diversity in culture that is assumed to be homogenous. Putting “Muslim” on the birth certificates of children in Muslim countries. Assumed that they will choose to become Muslim.
- Universality is not present in low-consensus deviance such as slurping food, gambling, and various sex acts.
What is low-consensus deviance also known as?
Situational deviance. It includes slurping food, gambling, and various sex acts.
What are some behaviours that are determined to be deviant fairly universally?
Incest — all cultures have norms governing this. Usually enters the criminal code of the country.
Behaviours that are determined to be deviant fairly universally are known as ___ ___ deviance.