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Flashcards in Chapter 4 Deck (49):

What are the 5 different relationships that can exist in the media-deviance nexus?

1. The media causes deviance.
2. The media socially constructs deviance/normality.
3. The media is used as a tool for committing deviant acts.
4. The media is used as a site where the deviance dance is played out.
5. The media is deviantized itself and is subjected to measures of social control.


What assumption does administrative research rely on to come to the conclusion that media causes deviance?

The content of the media messages has an effect on individuals' thoughts, feelings, and behaviours.


Is the effect of media on people the same across the board?

No, different people are impacted by media differently.


True or false? Violence in the media has been found to have some impact on aggressive behaviour in the real world in all people.

False, it is only shown in some people.


___ research on media studies says that media causes deviance.



___ research on media studies says that media constructs deviance and normality.



Critical research on media studies says that media constructs deviance and normality. This rests on the assumption that...

The media influences the culture as a whole (not individuals) through its power to define boundaries, identify social problems, and shape public debates.


How does the media construct deviance and normality?

Media shapes the dominant moral codes that govern what is perceived as acceptable and unacceptable behaviour, characteristics, and people.



Deviant acts that are committed using a computer.


Give an example of deviance that can only happen in the cyber world:

Creating/spreading viruses and malware or using someone else's wireless signal.


Give an example of deviance that can occur both online and in the real world:

Bullying, watching pornography.


Which demographic was most likely to be victimized by cyber deviance?

Those engaged in cyber deviance themselves. Downloading music illegally, using someone else's wireless signal, accessing computer files without permission, etc.



People who access computer systems without authorization and sometimes use that access for malicious purposes.


What are two ways that hackers use computer?

As a means of attack, and of communicating with other hackers.


What are the five normative orders that characterize that characterize the hacker subculture?

Technology, knowledge, commitment, categorization, and law.


Hackers and technology:

Express a deep overriding interest in understanding and manipulating technology, which they report emerging from an early age. Use forums to obtain technical skills.


Hackers and knowledge:

Continuous quest for knowledge. Hackers define themselves as people in pursuit of knowledge, and different labels are applied to individuals with varying levels of knowledge.


What are hackers with lots or knowledge called?

Elite hackers, 1337, or leet.


What are hackers with simplistic hacking activities called?

Script kiddies of noobs.


What are people with no hacking knowledge, but attend DEFCON called?

Scene whores.


Hackers and commitment:

An individual must be dedicated and willing to persist despite many obstacles and failures they will inevitably encounter.


Hackers and categorization:

The subculture is characterized by debates over the point at which an individual can be considered an authentic hacker, and variations in the point at which individuals integrate "hacker" into their own identities.


Hackers and law:

Debates revolve around questions about the legality of specific behaviours, as well as what forms of hacking are considered acceptable or unacceptable. Normal hacking and malicious hacking.



Forms of hacking that use computer viruses and malware to attack social infrastructure.


What are the three similarities between the Zealots and Titan Rain?

1. Similar patterns of communication. Sent encrypted communications.
2. Similar connections and kinship webs. Chaining.
3. Faced similar obstacles, particularly the protection of property on the part of their victims.



In terrorist networks, the process by which an individual can only join the network after being introduced and recommended by an existing member.


Digital Piracy

The illegal downloading of music, software, or video.


Is digital piracy a high-consensus form of deviance?

Unlike hacking government or military systems it is not.


Even though the Internet did not start piracy, why did the advent of the Internet encourage it?

The Internet facilitates piracy through through its anonymity, speed of transmission, and a shift in mindset about ownership given the perception that anything available online is free for others to download with impunity.


Use differential association theory to explain piracy:

Techniques and motives for piracy are learned in online environments, such as how to recognize files that may contain viruses or malware.


How do people neutralize the act of piracy?

Deny injury, condemn the condensers, and appeal to higher loyalties.


Use interpretive theory to explain piracy:

Explores processes to identify formation and labelling in digital pirates. Active digital pirates may identify themselves as "pirates" as a personal identity but do not identify themselves with with the online pirating subculture. Labelling and stigmatization within the pirating community: lowlife shits and leeches.



Refers to the use of information and communication technologies to support deliberate, repeated, and hostile behaviour by an individual or group that is intended to harm others.


True or false? Most cyberbullying is at the hands of acquaintances.



Examples of cyberbullying:

- Repeatedly sending rude or offensive messages.
- Threats of harm or intimidation.
- Sending untrue or cruel messages about someone to others.
- Pretending to be another real person when posting or sending messages.
- Posting embarrassing or private information about someone.
- Tricking someone into releasing private information.
- Excluding someone from an online group.


What proportion of people have been cyber bullied?



What proportion of people have admitted to cyberbullying?



How does the media serve as a social typer of deviance?

Through its framing of issues, events, and identities, it shows us who should be considered deviant, and why they should be considered deviant, and what should be done about it. Deviance dance. Can contradict or resist the deviant label.


What is the most obvious case of the deviance dance in media?

Although media can be used as a tool to commit various deviant acts, it can also be used as a tool to exert measures of social control on deviant acts.


How is media used as a tool against cyberbullying?

For example, a website that provides information and resources not only about bullying, but also suicide, depression, and substance abuse.


How is the media used as a tool for the social control of offline deviant behaviour?

Human rights groups use smartphones to record violations, identify Stanley Cup rioters in Vancouver.


How can media be used as a tool for resistance in the social typing process?

Social groups that are stigmatized offline can find online communities of support. Presence of online communities attempts to change society's dominant moral codes.



Hacktivist network that uses the Internet to resist social typing and change moral codes as well.


Does Anonymous classify themselves as committing cyber crimes?

No, they consider themselves "hacktivists."



Social activists who hack computers to improve society.


Anonymous is most well known for its relationship with ___.



Give examples of media socially typed as deviant:

- Songs with explicit lyrics.
- Shows with sexual content (esp. homosexuality) and substance use.


Give an example of media that was socially typed as deviant in the past that is no longer so.

Jazz music.


Why were swing dancers typed as deviant in Germany during WWII?

Because Germans wanted a clean cut militaristic look that was strictly german, while those in the swing subculture were more easygoing and followed more English trends.