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How do sociologists study white privilege?

* Used to understand why certain ethnic identities are marginalized, and why others are not. Role that white people play in society. Tool for understanding power relationships.


White Privilege

The historical, conscious, and unconscious privileging of white people.


Sociology is moving away from overt racism towards...

White people exercise power not by harming white people (overt harm), but rather exercise certain privileges that are the product of hundreds of years of racism and colonialism.


Are most white people aware of white privilege?



Article that is the foundation for the current discussion of white privilege:

“White Privilege: Unpacking the Invisible Knapsack” written by Peggy McIntosh.


Why does race persist according to McIntosh?

Race persists because white people access tools that non-white people are not given, or have to earn with much more difficulty.


What is the value of privilege?

Value of privilege is its ability to play the opposite role to oppression.


What is wrong with the words oppression and domination?

With the words oppression and domination, we are presupposing that a group or an individual exercises power over another group in very obvious ways. Would have made sense in 18th Century, makes less sense now.


What is the effect of racism not being obvious?

Many people do not know they have certain privileges, and many people do not know they do not have certain privileges.


What are the 3 main criticisms of white privilege?

1. Doesn’t actually do anything. Doesn’t help anyone, doesn’t end racism.
2. Views racial groups as homogenous.
3. Implies that all disadvantages suffered by racial groups are caused by that group’s race.


What is the scholar's answer to anti-racist work, and why is it criticized?

* More often than not, scholars suggest that anti-racist work should be about white people ridding themselves of their privileges.
* Need to be aware of their own white privilege. However, there is no empirical evidence of this.


What were Irish referred to in the past?

White chimpanzees, white Negros, white slaves.


What does lumping Irish and British together do?

* Mask the experiences of the Irish living in Britain.
* Erodes cultural differences into the myth of homogenous whiteness.
* “Rape” as the forced penetration of the virgin land. Encouraged the British to colonize Ireland.


Islam is uniquely identified with ___.



White women who convert to Islam and wear a headscarf can be perceived as...

Outsiders, and be discriminated against.


White converts can lose access to...

White privilege.


What process to white converts undergo?

Undergo re-racialization when they convert to Islam. Racialized as effectively non-white.



Ceased to be white, entered another race zone.


“Not Quite White” status means it might be difficult to attain...

White privilege.


White converts are treated similarly to...

Jews, Irish, and Italians who have been radicalized as non-white throughout various points in history.


How can white privilege negatively affect converts?

White privilege prevents converts from being accepted into their new religion. May be cast out.


What is a negative effect that white female converts suffer from?

Female white converts have encountered the stereotype that white people are sexually promiscuous or hedonistic. Leads to unwanted sexual advances from lifelong Muslims.