Flashcards in Lecture 6 Deck (43):
Defined as cosmetics or imitation, adornments, tattoos, scarification, piercing, cutting, etc.
Give an example of how body modification has become mainstream:
Previously, it used to be the case that runway models could not have any sort of body modification. However, it is now common.
What is an effect of the normalization of body modification?
The old associations fade into the background.
What is a critique against tattoos?
Violate core mainstream appearance norms?
The idea that tattoos violate core mainstream appearance norms is especially prevalent when:
The person does not conceal, or the tattoo cannot be concealed.
Which gender is more concerned about parents objecting to visible tattoos?
Any kind of negative attitudes or beliefs that are held about people who are perceived as different.
People who have tattoos are stigmatized to:
Have poor decision making skills, easily swayed by peer pressure, had unhappy childhoods, made a mistake while they were drunk, poor, rebellious.
What happens to those who are stigmatized?
Those who experience stigmatization experience alienation, isolation.
Where do college students choose to get tattoos?
On body parts that are easy to cover.
People frown upon ___ with tattoos more than ___ with tattoos.
Women who get tattoos are viewed as...
Being gender-role violators.
Why do people get tattoos?
- Representations of bonds with friends, family.
- On a dare.
- People with tattoos score higher on need for uniqueness, extraversion, and experience seeking.
Tattoos correlate with which negative things?
- Tattoos on females predicted rave attendance.
- Substance abuse.
- On males, correlates with substance abuse and risk-taking behaviours.
- Also associated with lower mental health status.
- Lack of religious affiliation.
- Extended period of incarceration.
- Youth have higher rates of hostility, aggression, and anxiety.
- People’s histories of having emotional, physical, and sexual abuse.
- Histories of abuse and suicidal thoughts.
Tattoos correlate with which positive things?
- Higher self-esteem.
- Tattooed youth are more likely to be more sexually active. Began sexual activity earlier.
- Helps people regain control over their bodies after abuse.
___ are more likely to get a tattoo than ___.
___ are more likely to seek tattoo removal.
Women with 4 or more tattoos are:
More likely to have lower levels of self-esteem, higher levels of depression, and more likely to report a history of suicide attempts.
Why are women with 4 or more tattoos more likely to have lower levels of self-esteem, higher levels of depression, and more likely to report a history of suicide attempts?
Women are more likely to seek emotional restoration through tattoos to a greater degree than men.
Non-Suicidal Self Injury
The deliberate infliction of damage, pain, or both to one’s own body without being suicidal. Can include scratching, burning, cutting, carving, bone-breaking.
True or false? People self harm out of mood or emotional regulation.
True or false? Piercing or tattoos may serve as socially acceptable form of self-harming.
Subculture that often engages in self-harming behaviours. Also often get tattoos. Sometimes overlap.
What is the social aspect of self-harm?
Those who self-harm say that “everyone is doing it.” Large proportion of today’s self harmers heard about it from outside sources. Most of them know other people who self-harm, discuss self-harming with friends, and self-harm with friends.
Is there any evidence that self-harming is an attention-seeking behaviour?
Goths are characterized by black attire and white makeup, black eyeliner and lipstick. Thrives all around the world, but there is a strong subculture in Japan.
How is body modification turned into a performance?
Type of tattoos among Japanese goths:
- Tattoos among goths in Japan is done in an Western style.
- Motifs such as skulls, bats, demonic imagery.
What is the centrepiece of Japanese gothic subculture?
Idea of being mentally sick. Their fashion choices and body modification is intended to be transformative, enjoy the fact that you are sick. Despair almost becomes a purely aesthetic act. Form of emotional regulation, but also view their pain with a sense of irony and amusement.
Japanese goth from an outsider's perspective.
Really morbid overtones, music is bloody and vulgar, and they seem obsessed with death. Goths associated with depression, suicide, and self-harm.
The goth subculture is largely playful, and is a performance that allows them to escape the social pressures of ___.
Used to refer to transgressive values, styles, and behaviours.
How do subcultures have diffuse networks?
People come and go. Little formal leadership, no bureaucratic organizational structures.
How do subcultures have a shared identity?
See themselves as being different, and part of being part of an imagined community.
How do subcultures have shared distinctive meanings?
Share ideas, practices, and objects.
How do subcultures engage in resistance?
Antagonistic towards mainstream culture, even if this is just passive resistance.
How do subcultures have a sense of marginalization?
Have an outsider status. Choose their marginalization.
How do subcultures use words and phrases?
Allow them to distinguish insiders from outsiders.
How do subcultures use style and music?
Subcultures are connected to styles and music. Roots of subculture.
How do subcultures act as a social support system?
Serve as a home and refuge. People can feel accepted, kind of like having a chosen family.
Diffuse collections of people that gather intermittently, primarily to have a good time and to share some sense of togetherness. Another example would be ravers.