Chapter 9 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 9 Deck (81):
1

Belief

Any proposition that an individual considered to be true, regardless of whether it is true or not.

2

Belief Systems

Organized sets of interrelated beliefs.

3

What are the two different types of relationships between belief systems and deviance?

1. Belief systems as deviance, when acts of deviance occur within groups of people who adhere to particular belief systems.
2. Belief systems as social typers of deviance, wherein the truths proclaimed by belief systems dictate to us who should be considered deviant.

4

Religion as Deviance

Deviance acts that occur within accepted religions, or religion belief systems that are socially typed as deviant.

5

Ecclesia

State religions that are sanctioned by the government and adopted as a nation's official religion.

6

Churches

Large and powerful religious groups that are well established in society and highly bureaucratized.

7

Denominations

Religious subgroups of larger churches.

8

Sects

Smaller religious groups that have unusually broken away from larger churches and which have more rigid doctrine and higher levels of commitment required of members.

9

Cults

Smaller religious groups characterized by a highly oppositional and reactionary doctrine, extremely high levels of commitment required of members, and a single, charismatic leader.

10

Which are more deviant? Sects of cults?

Cults.

11

Which are more deviant? Sects of cults?

Cults.

12

What determines the level of tension between sects and wider society?

1. The magnitude of differences between the sect and society.
2. The level of antagonism that the sect feels for society.
3. The extent to which the sect separates itself from the larger world.

13

What is the difference between Seventh-day Adventists and Jehovah's Witnesses?

Jehovah's Witnesses experience significantly higher levels of tension with their surrounding societies than do Seventh-day Adventists. Seventh-day Adventists have conformed more to society through compromise, while Jehovah's Witnesses remain in strict opposition.

14

Denominational Sect

A religious sect that has become increasingly integrated into the larger society, such that it is on the verge of being considered a denomination of a larger church.

15

Established Sect

A religious sect that retains a high level of tension with the larger society.

16

Give an example of an established sect:

Jehovah's Witnesses.

17

Deviancy Amplification

The process by which a deviantized group becomes more extreme as a response to hostilities or social control efforts from outsiders.

18

Deviancy Amplification

The process by which a deviantized group becomes more extreme as a response to hostilities or social control efforts from outsiders.

19

Where does the selective coverage of cults arise from?

1. Lack of accurate knowledge about cults and the groups in question.
2. The use of biased sources of information.
3. Limited time or financial resources, causing a tendency to over-report sensationalistic stories in the beginning but then ignore later developments.

20

What are cults associated with in the public mind?

Mind control, violence, mental illness, sexual deviance, and sexual abuse of children.

21

Are public concerns about cults unfounded?

Not completely. Behaviours that violate cultural norms do occur in cults such as The Family of Love.

22

When does violence emerge in cults?

When beliefs become more polarized, especially when latent tensions between the groups and social authorities intensify.

23

What is the former name of The Family of Love?

The Children of God.

24

What is The Family of Love based on?

David "Moses" Berg's revelation from God that he would be the prophet who would play a key role in the second coming of Jesus Christ.

25

Name some controversial aspects of The Family:

- Flirty Fishing.
- Sexual sharing.

26

What are some caveats to the freedom of religion?

If they pose as threats to public health, public order, and infringement of rights of others.

27

Anti-Cult Movement

Individuals that educate people about dangerous or destructive cults and attempt to control their activities by lobbying governments and other organizations; also known as cult awareness group.

28

Cult Awareness Groups

Individuals that educate people about dangerous or destructive cults and attempt to control their activities by lobbying governments and other organizations; also known as the anti-cult movement.

29

Counter-Cult Movement

Fundamentalist Christian groups that express concerns about other religious groups they considered to be based on "wrong" ideologies.

30

Which is older? The anti-cult movement or the counter-cult movement?

The counter-cult movement.

31

What are some signs of a dangerous cult?

- Leader places group above the law.
- Leader does not follow same rules as other members.
- Leader exerts control beyond realm of religion.
- Mind control techniques.
- Policies deceiving outsiders.
- Based on apocalyptic vision.

32

Which movement against cults uses less formal means?

Counter-cult movements. They cannot gain legitimacy in lobbying as anti-cult movements can.

33

How do governments control cults?

Through agencies like CSIS, FBI, and MILS. Monitor dangerous cults. Enact legislation outlawing them.

34

Besides the groups themselves, where does resistance against the social typing of "deviant" of cults and sects come from?

Academia.

35

How does academia dispute the social typing of "deviant" of cults and sects?

Discussing how evident the boundaries are between churches, sects, and cults.

36

New Religious Movements

A term used by some scholars in place of the terms sect or cult.

37

Give an example of how religion is a social typer of deviance:

Adolescents who attend religious organizations are less likely to be sexually active, have stronger relationships with their parents, are more committed to school, have less permissive attitudes towards alcohol use, criminal behaviour, marijuana use, and hard drug use.

38

Give an example of how religion is a social typer of deviance:

Adolescents who attend religious organizations are less likely to be sexually active, have stronger relationships with their parents, are more committed to school, have less permissive attitudes towards alcohol use, criminal behaviour, marijuana use, and hard drug use.

39

Witch Craze

A time when witches were persecuted. Declared to be in league with the Satan and responsible for plagues, floods, stillborn babies, infertility, crop failures, and any other unfortunate events in families or communities.

40

Malleus Maleficarum

A book that taught people how to force "confessions" from "witches" through torture.

41

Residential Schooling

A policy of the Canadian government that removed Aboriginal children from their communities and placed them in boarding schools run by various Christian churches.

42

Was parental consent necessary for residential schooling?

No, as legislation made all Aboriginals wards of the state.

43

Child-Savers Movement

During the Victorian era, middle-class church groups who thought it was the state's responsibility to provide a moral environment for children who parents were unwilling or unable to do so.

44

Social Gospel

A theology that informed the work of the child-savers movement during the Victorian era, whereby Christian principles were applied in real-weld settings to solve social problems.

45

What was a problem with the child-savers movement?

Morality was equated to middle class, and being in a lower socioeconomic class was typed as deviant.

46

Science

Knowledge or a system of knowledge covering general truths of the operation of general laws especially as obtained and tested through scientific method.

47

What are the two belief systems in the sciences?

1. There are claims about the nature of reality, the way the world works.
2. There are ethical and moral claims embedded in the scientific belief system.

48

What are 2 ways in which scientists can be considered deviant?

1. When they engage in scientific misconduct.
2. When they are part of a discipline not recognized by the scientific community as being a "real" science.

49

Scientific Misconduct

Umbrella term used to refer to fabrication or falsification of data, breaches of ethics, plagiarism, and any other scientific practices deemed unacceptable or inappropriate.

50

What led to the intensification of focus on scientific misconduct?

The Patchwork Mouse incident in 1974.

51

True or false? Misconduct is primarily associated with the soft sciences.

False, it is primarily associated with the hard sciences.

52

Why would misconduct be primarily associated with the hard sciences?

Not necessarily because it is more common, but because it is more likely to be looked for and detected.

53

What field is particularly high in scientific misconduct detection?

Biomedical research. This is because it is a hot issue and lots of interest is generated. Also, lots of the funding comes from external agencies.

54

Dr. Hwang Woo Suk

A Korean researcher who falsified data on human cloning and stem cells. Fell from fame, now indicted. How did his research pass the peer review process?

55

What are the two explanations for scientific misconduct?

1. Bad apple/person theory.
2. Iceberg theory.

56

Bad Apple/Person Theory

A theory that claims acts of scientific misconduct are rare.

57

Iceberg Theory

A theory that claims the acts of scientific misconduct that are detected are only a small proportion of all of the instances of misconduct that are actually occurring.

58

True or false? Most scientific misconduct is discovered by accident and not by safeguards.

True.

59

How do techniques of neutralization play a role in scientific deviance?

Techniques like denial of injury or denial of responsibility help scientists justify their actions, convincing themselves or other that what they are doing is not really wrong or that they are not responsible for the misconduct.

60

How is scientific deviance explained through strain theory?

Mode of adaptation called innovation. Gap between legitimized goals and access to the legitimate means of attaining those goals.

61

How is scientific deviance explained through self-control theory?

When low self-control is combined with an environment where co-workers are engaging in deviance, deviant acts are more likely.

62

What is the problem with scientist-industry partnerships?

Can result in scientific misconduct that is steered by the funding source, or done by the funded scientist without the funder's knowledge.

63

Give an example of how a corporation may alter scientific results:

Company usually retains rights to publish (or not). If not, they can delay publication until favourable results come out.

64

Post-Academic Science

A term that refers to the predominance of scientific research occurring in commercial centres rather than university environments.

65

What approach would be most effective in reducing scientific misconduct?

Population prevention approach. Focusing on misconduct at its broadest level. Getting rid of "publish or perish."

66

Describe science before 1975:

Institutional logic emphasized science as self-governing, based on the assumption that science was inherently about objectivity and the search for truth. Normative structure to science.

67

Describe science between 1975 and 1990:

Institutional logic became one of coercive measures to both punish and prevent misconduct. Institutional research boards were formed.

68

In what era were research institutions that received public research funding required to implement procedures for investigating allegations of misconduct?

1975-1990.

69

Describe science after 1990:

Shifted to focusing on promoting research integrity, growth of private research funding has removed some of the power behind the coercive social control mechanisms.

70

What are the 4 normative structures of science?

1. Communism.
2. Skepticism.
3. Disinterestedness.
4. Universalism.

71

Communism

Scientists freely give up rights to the knowledge that they create so that this knowledge can be shared by all.

72

Skepticism

All ideas must be subjected to rigorous scrutiny.

73

Disinterestedness

Scientific work is done in the name of truth rather than for any personal gain or vested interests.

74

Universalism

Knowledge is free from any biases based on characteristics such as race, gender, or religion.

75

What was the belief about scientific misconduct prior to 1975?

Normative pressures within the scientific community would be sufficient to prevent misconduct.

76

Name some pseudo-sciences:

Astrology, magnetic therapy, and Bible codes.

77

Why is labelling pseudo-sciences difficult?

A science perceived as deviant at one point may become an accepted science at a later date, such as radio astronomy.

78

What is a reason that some pseudo-sciences are not accepted?

The scientific community is conservative.

79

Who suggested that the acceptance of knowledge claims depends on the power of people making those claims?

Michael Foucault in his book Power/Knowledge.

80

Social Darwinism

The application of the Darwinian concept of evolution to history and societies.

81

Eugenics

Practices to increase sexual reproduction among individuals believed to be genetically superior while decreasing (or eliminating) sexual reproduction among those believed to be genetically inferior.