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Flashcards in Chapter 2 Deck (76):
1

Atavists

In early criminological theories, the view that criminals were evolutionary throwbacks whose biology prevented them from conforming to society's rules.

2

Positivist (Theories of Deviance).

Theories that attempt to explain the causes of behaviour.

3

Interpretive Theories

Theories that draw attention to people's intersubjective understandings of the world around them, other people, and themselves.

4

Critical Theories

Theories that focus on the power relations that underlie the creation of social rules, and that have an interest in emancipation and social justice.

5

Are positivist, interpretive, and critical theories mutually exclusive?

No, they can be used in combination.

6

Which type of theories are modelled after approaches to theorizing in the natural sciences which seek generalizable, universally applicable laws?

Positivist theories.

7

Which type of theories seek cause-and-effect relationships in the form of statistical relationships?

Positivist theories.

8

Positivist explanations of deviance are inevitably coupled with efforts at social ___, such as against violent crime or homosexuality.

Control.

9

Give examples of positivist theories:

Functionalist theories, learning theories, and theories of social control.

10

Functionalist Theories (Structural Functionalist Theories).

Positivist theories that explain the causes of behaviour in terms of the various structures that fulfill important functions for society.

11

Manifest Functions

In functionalist theories, those functions that are intended to be fulfilled by society's structures.

12

Latent Functions

In functionalist theories, those functions that are unintentionally served by society's structures.

13

When is deviance functional?

Seeing someone break the rules leads the rest of us to realize how important the rules are and the necessity of following the rules.

14

How does deviance increase social solidarity?

Seeing someone break the rules leads the rest of us to realize how important the rules are and the necessity of following the rules.

15

Deviance is functional in that it is through observing behaviour and its consequences that...

A society determines what its moral boundaries are.

16

Anomie (Durkheim)

In Durkheim's functionalist theory, a state of normlessness.

17

What did Parsons and Smelser propose?

That individuals engage in small acts of minor deviance that act as a safety valve and let off steam, but get returned to their acceptable roles in society.

18

How do minor deviant actors that engage in small acts of minor deviance get returned to their acceptable roles in society according to Parsons and Smelser?

1. Socialization.
2. Profit.
3. Persuasion.
4. Coercion.

19

How do minor deviant actors that engage in small acts of minor deviance get returned to their acceptable roles in society according to Parsons and Smelser?

1. Socialization.
2. Profit.
3. Persuasion.
4. Coercion.

20

How do minor deviant actors that engage in small acts of minor deviance get returned to their acceptable roles in society according to Parsons and Smelser?

1. Socialization.
2. Profit.
3. Persuasion.
4. Coercion.

21

Did Durkheim believe that all levels of deviance were functional for society?

No, only deviance up to a point was functional.

22

Social Integration

In Durkheim's functionalist theory, the level of cohesion or social bonds in society.

23

Moral Regulation

In Durkheim's functionalist theory, the extent to which norms are enforced in society.

24

Durkheim noted that suicide rates were higher in more individualistic communities characterized by...

Less social integration and lower levels of moral regulation.

25

Mechanical Solidarity

In Durkheim's functionalist theory, preindustrial societies in which people were bonded together by their similarity to one another.

26

Organic Solidarity

In Durkheim's functionalist theory, industrial societies in which people are bonded together by their interdependence.

27

Organic Solidarity

In Durkheim's functionalist theory, industrial societies in which people are bonded together by their interdependence.

28

Institutionalized Goals

In Merton's strain theory, the goals that are culturally exalted, including wealth, status/power, and prestige.

29

Legitimate Means

In Merton's strain theory, socially acceptable ways of attaining the institutionalized goals in society.

30

Anomie (Merton)

In Merton's functionalist theory, a state where society's institutionalized goals are emphasized more than the legitimate means of attaining those goals.

31

Conformity

In Merton's strain theory, the mode of adaptation that involves acceptance of both the institutionalized goals and the legitimate means of attaining those goals.

32

Innovation

In Merton's strain theory, the mode of adaptation that involves accepting society's institutionalized goals but rejecting the legitimate means of attaining those goals.

33

Strain

The structural gap that exists between institutionalized goals and the legitimate means of achieving those goals for people located in some parts of the social structure.

34

Retreatism

In Merton's strain theory, the mode of adaptation that involves rejecting both society's institutionalized goals and the legitimate means of attaining those goals.

35

Rebellion

In Merton's strain theory, the mode of adaptation that involves replacing society's institutionalized goals and legitimate means with new sets of goals and means.

36

Rebellion

In Merton's strain theory, the mode of adaptation that involves replacing society's institutionalized goals and legitimate means with new sets of goals and means.

37

Rebellion

In Merton's strain theory, the mode of adaptation that involves replacing society's institutionalized goals and legitimate means with new sets of goals and means.

38

Give an example of some individuals that engaged in rebellion:

Louis Riel, Martin Luther King Jr., Nelson Mandela.

39

Who came up with differential opportunity theory?

Cloward and Ohlin.

40

How is differential opportunity theory different from strain theory?

The way society is structured also results in differential access to illegitimate opportunities -- some people have more access to illegitimate opportunities than other people do by living in neighbourhoods that may have street gangs, drug dealers, or sex trade workers.

41

How is differential opportunity theory different from strain theory?

The way society is structured also results in differential access to illegitimate opportunities -- some people have more access to illegitimate opportunities than other people do by living in neighbourhoods that may have street gangs, drug dealers, or sex trade workers.

42

Criminal Gangs

In differential opportunity theory, gang who activities are economic in nature.

43

Retreatist Gangs

In differential opportunity theory, gangs whose activities revolve around substance use.

44

Conflict Gangs

In differential opportunity theory, gangs who engage in violent conflict with other gangs in pursuit of status and power.

45

How is Agnew's general strain theory different from strain theory?

Strain can be produced from a variety of processes, including when we are unable to achieve goals, when valued stimuli are removed, or when negative stimuli are presented. Deviance emerges when strain is accompanied by negative affect.

46

How is Agnew's general strain theory different from strain theory?

Strain can be produced from a variety of processes, including when we are unable to achieve goals, when valued stimuli are removed, or when negative stimuli are presented. Deviance emerges when strain is accompanied by negative affect.

47

How is Cohen's status frustration theory different from strain theory?

Inequalities in the structure of society are reproduced in the classroom, resulting in delinquent subcultures among lower-class boys.

48

Middle-Class Measuring Rod

In status frustration theory, the middle-class norms that permeate the school system and against which all students are compared.

49

Status Frustration

In status frustration theory, the strain experienced by lower-class boys who are unable to live up to the middle-class standards of the school system.

50

Mutual Conversion

The way in which lower-class boys join with similar others in response to status frustration.

51

Reaction Formation

In status formulation theory, the oppositional standards that are developed by lower-class boys in the school system.

52

Teleological

An argument that proposes the existence of a phenomenon lies in the functions that it serves; a critique of functionalist theories.

53

Tautological

A circular argument, in which the latter part of the argument merely restates the former part of the argument: a critique of functionalist theories.

54

Androcentric Bias

A bias towards the experiences of males, whereby female experiences are ignored; a critique of functionalist theories.

55

Microanomie

A state wherein an individual's self-transcendence values are exceeded by self-enhancement values.

56

Differential Association

The process by which individuals learn deviant or conforming techniques and motives.

57

Techniques of Neutralization

Self-rationalizations for deviant behaviour.

58

List the five techniques of neutralization:

1. Denial of responsibility.
2. Denial of injury.
3. Denial of the victim.
4. Condemnation of the condemners.
5. Appealing to higher loyalties.

59

Denial of Responsibility

A technique of neutralization that acknowledges one's behaviour but shifts the larger blame to someone or something else.

60

Denial of Injury

A technique of neutralization that argues one's behaviour does not hurt anybody.

61

Denial of the Victim

A technique of neutralization that argues the victim of one's behaviour was deserving of that behaviour.

62

Condemnation of the Condemners

A technique of neutralization that shifts the focus from the deviant's own behaviour to the deviant behaviour of others, especially people from the social groups that have pointed to this person's deviance.

63

Appealing to Higher Loyalties

A technique of neutralization that rationalize one's deviant behaviour as serving a higher purpose.

64

Social Learning Theory

Highlights the role of learning processes in behaviour. All behaviours are the result of definitions, differential association, imitation, and differential reinforcement.

65

Social learning theory is related to the behaviourist theory of...

Instrumental conditioning. We are more likely to engage in behaviours we have been rewarded for in the past.

66

How does social learning theory go beyond simple operant conditioning?

We learn from the societal responses to others as well.

67

What are some limitations of learning theories?

- Difficult to tally.
- Theory is riddled with escape clauses, cannot predict.
- Neutralization is measured post-act, not pre-act.

68

What do social control theories focus on that other positivist theories do not?

They focus on why not all people become deviant. Other positivist theories focus on why people become deviant.

69

What are the four social bonds that rein us in, according to Hirschi?

1. Attachment.
2. Commitment.
3. Involvement
4. Belief.

70

Attachment

In social bonds theory, the bond characterized by one's emotional attachment to others.

71

Commitment

In social bonds theory, the bond characterized by ones vested interest in the conforming world.

72

Involvement

In social bonds theory, the bond characterized by the time one spends involved in conventional activities.

73

Belief

Any proposition that an individual considers to be true, regardless of whether it is true or not.

74

Self-Control

In self-control theory, the factor that prevents most people from engaging in deviance.

75

Criticism of both social bonds theory and self-control theory:

Ignoring the role of peer associations in deviant outcomes.

76

Another name for self-control theory:

The general theory of crime.