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What did Cosmo unveil as the “world’s most dangerous secret society” in 2001?



Media ___ pro-ana.



What refers to skeletal pictures of women?




Refers to the belief that anorexia, far from the diagnosis as a medical condition, is a condition to aspire to.


Anorexia was first diagnosed in the...



What did anorexia nervosa replace?

Anorexia mirabilis.


Anorexia Mirabilis

Fasting associated with a spiritual discipline.


How was anorexia dealt with in the Victorian era?

Scientific method established anorexia as a nervous disease. Seemed to affect high-born girls from wealthy families.


Anorexia nervosa is established as a ___ category.



What are some treatments for anorexia?

- Normalize eating patterns and body weight.
- Correct any erroneous beliefs the patients may have about food and nutrition.


How would you normalize eating patterns?

Re-feeding. Bringing the patient's body weight up to a point where it's within the normal range, but not so high as to cause the patient anxiety.


What are the three perspectives of anorexia?

- Medical.
- Social science.
- Pro-ana.


Social science perspective of anorexia:

Say that our body image expectations are causing these women to be anorexic. Influence of media.


Pro-ana experience of anorexia:

Often acknowledge the scientific approach, and may also explain the social science perspective. It is also experiential and aspirational, and contributes to a positive sense of self. Describe it as a means to enable them to get control over their lives.


Contradiction of Anorexia

Two competing feelings, one of insecurity about their bodies and the other of tremendous vanity, because they are attempting to achieve this ideal beauty they’ve conceptualized in their minds.



One of the most notable features of pro-ana. Include photos of thin celebrities and models. Provide encouragement to sustain low weight in the face of social pressures.


How do groups react to the congruity between Thinspiration and Western standards of feminine beauty?

To social sciences, this is a sign that they are trying to conceptualize a Western standard of beauty. However, pro-ana members describe this as a comfort more than an attempt to emulate this type of beauty.



MPA poses as a recovery site, but part of it is encouraging anorexia.


What are the consequences of young people visiting sites like MPA?

Young people exposed to sites like this are more likely to be driven to be anorexic, and are also likely to have negative perceptions of their appearance.


Many pro-ana members are ___ to the idea of recovery.



What is the goal of pro-ana?

Main goal is the safe management of their anorexia.


What do pro-ana sites do?

Offers support in a non-judgemental way, rather than the politically correct approach. Allows members to play out routines/rituals that provide comfort for their challenging lives, and provide comfort in flailing difficult lives and circumstances.


Difference between pro-ana and regular anorexic people that is most worrisome for medical professionals and parents:

Refusal to seek treatment.


Describe how Anorexia is hard to treat:

Has one of the highest mortality rates of all psychiatric illnesses. 50% make recovery, and remainder developing chronic condition.


What is some insight that the pro-ana movement provides?

- Contradictory standpoint.
- Resistance.
- Empowerment.


Contradictory standpoint in the pro-ana movement:

On one hand, women and girls idolize and attempt to represent ideals of feminine beauty. Photographs of women and girls inspire them, and they feel as though they have not achieved the ideal. However, as punishments for failure, they renew their regime.


Resistance in the pro-ana movement:

Members of the community resists the threat go therapy and hospitalization.


Empowerment in the pro-ana movement:

Women get to see their anorexic identity outside of a medical context.


What is a consequence of women having eating disorders more than men?

It has been painted as a "woman's issue." This feminized view of eating disorders predisposes doctors to overlook diagnoses in men.


___ men are more likely to suffer from eating disorders.



Why are men's eating issues complicated? Because they are concerned about both...

Men have concerns about their weight, but also their muscularity. Both share overlapping features.


What are common features of male anorexia?

Athletic achievement and excessive exercise.


What is the double stigma for men with eating disorders?

Double stigma of having an eating disorder, and having what is perceived as a “female disease.”


Hospitalization for men with anorexia:

Duration of men hospitalized for anorexia is shorter than women, and men also have fewer suicide attempts. Men report less anxiety with their eating disorders, but there is no difference in terms of binging, vomiting, or laxative and diet pill use.


Bodybuilding is characterized by:

Spending lots of time at the gym, spending excessive amounts of money on supplements, abnormal eating patterns, and substance abuse.


Bodybuilding is primarily a ___ dominated activity.



What is judged in a bodybuilding competition?

Size, symmetry, and definition of muscles are judged.


Difference between power lifting and bodybuilding:

Power lifting. Bench press, squat, and deadlift. Not as concerned about reducing body fat.


History of bodybuilding:

Sandow was the first bodybuilder. However, sport didn’t take off until much later. By the late 70’s, the bodybuilding subculture was overlooked. In 1977, Arnold Schwarzenegger showed up on the scene, and became accepted into mainstream culture.


Muscle Dysmorphia

Lifting weights is different from a pathological obsession with muscularity. This condition first entered the literature in 1993 with the term “reverse anorexia.” These men, although they were highly muscular, believed they were small and weak. Declined social invitations, wore heavy clothing even in summer, and did not take shirt off on the beach.


Effects of steroids:

Steroids have few immediate side effects, but eventually have side effects such as high cholesterol, inflamed prostate, baldness, acne, breast growth, and testicular atrophy. Can also suffer from erectile dysfunction.



Slang for anabolic steroids.


How does media portray male bodies?

Make men feel insecure about their bodies. Today’s society also tells us that the enhanced lean muscular physique embodies the healthy lifestyle, but also the minimum all men should attain.


Why would men be drawn to muscle dysmorphia?

Women outperform men in school and in workplace, and some men have insecure gender identities. May help explain growth of bodybuilding. Try to regain some element of the past.


Difference between healthy enthusiasm and muscle dysmorphia:

Difference is distress about how they look. Are comfortable with the fact that they are seeing gains.


Bodybuilding competitions have a certain “carnival” dimension to them:

- Continually look for ways to cheat the system.
- Irony is that bodybuilding, coupled with they use of steroids, leads to undesirable outcomes.


What is ironic about the side effects of steroids?

Instead of being hyper-masculinized, these characteristics move in the opposite direction.


History of women's bodybuilding:

In the 1970’s, women’s bodybuilding would’ve resembled a pageant. In the 80’s, it became a contest and competition rather than just sideshows for male bodybuilding contests.


A woman bodybuilder is deemed to be successful if:

Her physique shows strength and discipline, but are also encouraged to be feminine through costumes, jewelry, etc. Also desire an hourglass figure while maintaining muscularity.


Issues faced by female bodybuilders:

- Often lose breasts, so they get breast implants. Very difficult for them to maintain both standards of musculature while also retaining femininity.
- Also stigmatized. Less intelligent, less attractive, less socially popular. Deviant because they defy gender norms. Less likely to be good mothers, less likely to value feminine interests.


How do bodybuilding women deal with labels like "mannish,” “bulky,” or “lesbian”?

Often overcompensate and go to a caricature of femininity. Wear pink, participate in erotic photo shoots.


True or false? Many female bodybuilders have ambiguous sexual orientation.