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Gender refers to cultural and social understandings about what constitutes masculinity and femininity.


"Boy" and "girl" behaviours are the result of both ___ and ___.

Genetics, socialization.


Sex is a ___ and gender is a ___.

Status, role.


Sex determines ___, while gender describes ___.

Who we are, what we do.


What is the double standard in human sexuality?

- Different standards for males and females.
- Identification of sexual norms and the concept of sexual deviance.


True or false? Sexual identity is a dichotomy.

False, lies on a spectrum, or a continuum. Fluidity of sexuality and gender.


What does it mean when we say "sexual cultures vary"?

- Today’s sexual deviance can be tomorrow’s morality.
- Perceptions of what is normal vary across cultures and over time.


When was interracial marriage determined to be allowed, and laws prohibiting it unconstitutional?

Overturned in 1867 (Loving v. Virginia).


Ritualized homosexuality in Sambian society:

Mountain people, well known for ritualized homosexuality. Semen ingestion with pubescent boys.


How do radical social constructionists view the Sambian people?

As an example of how malleable and flexible our gender roles and sexuality can be.


Why might sociologists say there is a limit to the malleability and flexibility of gender?

Many Sambian boys do not enjoy giving blowjobs. Also don’t enjoy receiving them. Many of them feel they are coerced into doing this. Some boys resist participating violently, and at the earliest opportunity stop engaging in male-male sexual behaviour.


Attitudes concerning nudity:

When nudity is used for entertainment or to make a living, it is inappropriate. However, for figure-painting, it is ok.


Two-Spirit People

- Traditional Aboriginal culture is extremely diverse.
- Amidst that diversity, there was some commonalities.
- Perceived sexuality as an integral part of a holistic view of life.
- Sexuality considered a gift from their creator, rather than a sin (Europeans).
- Aboriginal cultures recognized more than two sexes and genders. Incorporated acceptance of diverse sexualities.
- During early years of colonization, Aboriginal women were frequent sexual partners of male settlers. However, as time went on, Aboriginal sexual practices were considered deviant. Europeans tried to control it through religion and law.


Disconnect between Aboriginal people today and their ancestors:

Homophobia, anti-LGBTQ attitudes. Do not embrace sexual diversity of ancestors. Historically, treating Aboriginal view as utopian is naive.


Two Essences

Both male and female. Cross-dressers, transvestites, lesbian, gay, and transgendered. Anyone otherwise marked as alternatively gendered.


What does the two-spirit identity allow them to do?

Pushes back against the history of colonization.


Why is two-spirit activism contemporary?

- Not all Aboriginal groups have two-spirit members.
- Not all of them were integral parts of the community. Didn’t necessarily get special status.
- Fixated on men. Ignores restrictions placed on women in these cultures.


Why is the term "two-spirited" limited in terms of its usefulness as a generic term?

It is not applicable to all tribes, or even many tribes. Its usefulness as a generic term is limited. Conflates diverse native cultures. Pan-Indian identity which does not exist.


Europeans brought a set of beliefs that was shaped by religious past, but was not nearly as conservative as we think. Explain this:

Rejected idea that carnal ideas were sinful, but were conservative about it. Had to take place within family life. Saw sex as a duty both of the husband and the wife (owed to each other), and thought that sex enhanced marriage.


Similarities between Europeans and Aboriginals as far as sex:

- Pre-marital sex.
- Pair-bonded.
- Were not nearly as homophobic as you might think. Sodomy laws not enforced.
- Homoerotic behaviour found among Europeans.
- Some level of gender fluidity in Europe.


How was the 17th-Century Euro-Canadian sexual culture highly structured and intertwined with race, gender, and class.

- Women more likely than men to be punished for sexual deviance. Punishments were often more severe.
- Lower-class men were more likely to be punished than upper-class men.
- Black men compared to white men often suffered more.


How did women control their sexual behaviour in 17th-Century Euro-Canadian sexual culture?

- Delay marriage.
- Once wed, prolong breast feeding and refrain from sex while nursing.
- Unlikely that couples used contraceptives, but used pull-out method.
- Folk remedies to prevent conception or cause abortions had been known. Laxatives and blood letting, to the use of pessaries.


How did sexual culture begin to change?

- Urbanization/wage labour.
- Transfer of salvational responsibility.
- Love marriages began to replace arranged marriages.
- Women increasingly controlled sexuality.
- Idea of self-control began to permeate medical profession.
- Various forms of pornography available.


By the early 20th Century, dominant meaning of sexuality become ___ ___.

Personal happiness.


Do we have complete freedom now in sexual practices?

Presently, we have more freedom than we ever have before. However, we continue to talk about deviant sexualities.