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Flashcards in Lecture 16 Deck (43):


Belief in God(s).



Without belief in God(s).



Refers to the impossibility of having any kind of knowledge about God(s).


Can you be agnostic and atheist?



What are the 3 types of atheists?

1. Naive atheists.
2. Philosophical atheists.
3. New atheists; activists.


Naive Atheists

Largest number of atheists. People that think God doesn’t exist, but God’s existence doesn’t really make a big impact on their lives. Live their lives assuming God is not there. Most of China is made up of these people.


Philosophical Atheists

Think God doesn’t exist, and can articulate why (philosophy, science, etc.).


New Atheists; Activists

Want to engage in activist projects to secularize a country, or fight back against discrimination against atheists. Take a much stronger position.



Make evidence primary component of belief system.


True or false? All skeptics are atheists.



True or false? All atheists are skeptics.



What are some other names for atheists?

Free-thinker, non-believer, secular humanist, skeptics, bright.


Why don't some atheists want to be called atheists?

Because they associate it with baggage (like feminism).


True or false? Americans are less accepting of atheists than any other group.



What country would have problems with atheists?

Saudi Arabia.


What countries would not have problems with atheist?

Scandinavian countries.


If considered a religion, atheism would be the ___ largest religion in the world.



How do religious people use the religion of others?

As a quick and dirty way of determining the trustworthiness of others.


More than half of Americans believe that moral living is not possible without...

A belief in God.


How do Americans look at atheists in the context of criminality?

When religious believers see a criminal, they think of them as being more symbolic of atheists than any other group. People are more likely to see atheists as representative of criminality than rapists.


True or false? People think that religion provides protection from deviant behaviour.



Is it true that religion provides protection from deviant behaviour?

Yes, sociologists believe that religion generates a form of social conformity.


Why would religion promote social conformity?

Idea that people are going to be punished for sins after death.


What type of religious person is more likely to experience deviance constraining effects?

Intrinsically religious people.


What are some limitations to the correlation between religion and deviance?

- Weak correlation.
- Types of crimes.
- Overlap with law.
- What makes someone religious?
- Difference between extrinsic and intrinsic religion.
- Gender differences.
- Western research only.


With regards to religion's effect on deviance, what is the "weak correlation" limitation?

While it is true that as your religiosity goes up deviance goes down, the difference is not that great (it is not a huge number that differentiates religious people from non-religious people).


With regards to religion's effect on deviance, what is the "types of crimes" limitation?

The effect of religion depends on the type of deviant behaviour you are looking at. Victimless crimes are reduced as a result of religion, but there is not as much of an effect on serious crimes.


With regards to religion's effect on deviance, what is the "overlap with law" limitation?

Religions’ effect on crime and delinquency are hard to see, because many of the things religious people condemn are also condemned by secular law.


With regards to religion's effect on deviance, what is the "what makes someone religious" limitation?

How religion is measured has a huge impact on results. Are people that go to church religious? If you broadened the scope, you get different results than with a narrow scope.


With regards to religion's effect on deviance, what is the "difference between extrinsic and intrinsic religion" limitation?

Extrinsically religious people use religion for their own purposes (solace, community, status). Religion is not essential to who they are. Less likely to feel obligated to integrate religion into their daily lives. Intrinsically religious people live their religion. Essential to who they are. Intrinsically religious people are more committed. Deviance constraining effects of religion: intrinsic.


With regards to religion's effect on deviance, what is the "gender differences" limitation?

Effects of religion vary by gender. Women are more religious than men. More likely to report that religion is important to their lives. Tend to follow moral guidelines of their religion. Religiosity is sometimes feminized. Peace, love, sharing. Tend to be viewed as counter to masculine identity. Religious socialization is less dominant for boys than it is for girls. Religious leaders put more emphasis on socializing women into religious community. Religiosity’s protective effect affects women more than men.


With regards to religion's effect on deviance, what is the "Western research only" limitation?

This research that focuses on the narrative that religion curtails deviance is focused on Western countries. Christianity is highly embedded in mainstream culture. Research in East Asia is more scarce. Religious pluralism is the norm, rather than the exception in these areas. Peaceful interaction between religious groups and atheists.


True or false? Most South Koreans are Christian.

False, most are atheist.


True or false? Most Americans have a belief and a personal God.

True, 80%.


Describe Korean Christianity:

Christian missionaries fused components of two Indigenous forces that were present with Christianity. Shamanism and Confucianism were combined with Christianity. This combination tried to accommodate the local Indigenous groups.


How did Shamanism affect Korean Christianity?

One of the most prominent features of Shamanism is the preoccupation with fulfilling material wishes in this world. To cater to this worldly view, newly erected Korean churches exaggerated God’s ability and his interest in granting believers their wishes.


The ___ influence on Christianity portrayed God as a favour-dispensing machine.



Religion's effects in Korea are comparatively ___ when it comes to deviance than Christians in other parts of the world.



Why is it that in South Korea, there is low levels of deviance despite Christianity not preventing it much?

The presence of Confucianism.


Is Confucianism a religion?

No, it is a shared set of ethical values. Secular moral doctrine focused on harmony in society. Order and hierarchy.


True or false? In South Korea, being associated with a religion increases involvement in deviant behaviours.



Why might it be that in South Korea, being associated with a religion increases involvement in deviant behaviours?

South Koreans view high academic achievement as a foolproof way of finding desirable employment, having high social status, having good marriage. As such, children and adolescence are thrust into fierce academic competition. Under such circumstances, youth religious activities may serve as temporary but pleasant escape from academic stress. Parents force them into religious activities. Religious groups were places where kids engaged in deviant behaviours such as smoking.


Give an analogy for Korean kids and religion as conducive to deviance.

Kids that go to band camp are portrayed as nerdy, but in reality are going to get laid.