Chapter 16 - Vocabulary Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 16 - Vocabulary Deck (29)
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4 D's

Deviant, distressful, dysfunctional, and Dangerous.

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Psychological Disorder

Deviant, distressful, and dysfunctional behavior patterns.

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Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

A psychological disorder marked by the appearance by age 7 of one or more key symptoms: extreme inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity.

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Medical Model

The concept that diseases have physical causes that can be diagnosed, treated, and, in most cases, cured. When applied to psychological disorders, the medical model assumes that mental illnesses can be diagnosed on the basis of their symptoms and cured through therapy, which may include treatment in a psychiatric hospital.

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DSM-V

The American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fifth Edition), a widely used system for classifying psychological disorders.

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Anxiety Disorders

Psychological disorders characterized by distressing, persistent anxiety, or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety.

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Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)

An anxiety disorder in which a person is continually tense, apprehensive, and in a state of Autonomic Nervous System arousal.

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Panic Disorder

Accompanied by panic attacks. Marked by unpredictable minutes-long episodes of intense dread in which a person experiences terror and accompanying chest pain and a few other symptoms.

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Phobias

A persistent, irrational fear, and avoidance of a specific object or situation.

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Agoraphobia

A fear or avoidance of situations in which escape might be difficult or help unavailable when panic strikes.

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Specific Phobia

Fear of a specific object.

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Social Phobia

An intense fear of being scrutinized by others. They may avoid speaking up, eating out, or going to parties - or will sweat, tremble, or diarrhea when doing so.

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Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)

An anxiety disorder characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts (obsessions) and/or actions (compulsions).

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Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

An anxiety disorder characterized by haunting memories, nightmares, social withdrawal, jumpy anxiety, and/or insomnia that lingers for four weeks or more after a traumatic experience.

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Dissociative Disorders

Disorders in which conscious awareness becomes separated (dissociated) from previous memories, thoughts, and feelings.

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Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID)

A rare dissociative disorder in which a person exhibits two or more distinct and alternating personalities. Also called multiple personality disorder.

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Mood Disorders

Psychological disorders characterized by emotional extremes. See Major Depressive Disorder, Bipolar Disorder, and Mania.

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Major Depressive Disorder

A mood disorder in which a person experiences, in the absence of drugs or medical condition, two or more weeks of significantly depressed moods, feelings of worthlessness, and diminished interest or pleasure in most activities.

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Bipolar Disorder

A mood disorder in which the person alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression and the overexcited state of mania.

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Mania

A mood disorder marked by a hyperactive, wildly optimistic state.

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Schizophrenia

A group of severe disorders characterized by disorganized and delusional thinking, disturbed perceptions, and inappropriate emotions or actions.

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Delusions

False beliefs, often of persecution or grandeur, that may accompany psychotic disorders. Also includes fragmented, bizarre, and distorted beliefs.

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Personality Disorders

Psychological disorders characterized by inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning.

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Antisocial Personality Disorder

A personality disorder in which the person exhibits a lack of conscience for wrongdoing, even towards friends and family. May be aggressive and ruthless or a clever con artist.

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Hallucinations

Sensory experiences without sensory stimulation. Usually auditory and often takes the forms of voices making insulting statements or giving orders.

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Disorganization

Disorganized speech or behavior, or flat or inappropriate emotion. Word salads.

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Catatonia

Immobility, extreme negativism, and/or parrotlike repeating of another's speech or movement.

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Dysthymia Disorder

A down-in-the-dumps mood over a course of five years.

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Paranoid

Preoccupation with delusions or hallucinations, often with themes of persecution or grandiosity.