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Flashcards in Prologue - Vocabulary Deck (29)
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Psychology

Scientific study of behavior and mental processes.

1

Socrates

Concluded that mind is separable from body and continues after the body dies. Knowledge is innate.

2

Aristotle

Derived principles from observations. Soul is not separable from the body. Knowledge is not pre existing and grows from experience.

3

Descartes

Agreed with existence of innate ideas and the soul being separable from the body.

4

Francis Bacon

Founder of modern science. Introduced scientific method.

5

John Locke

The mind is a blank slate which experience draws on. Formed modern empiricism.

6

Empiricism

A view that knowledge originates in experience and that science should rely on observation and experiment.

7

Wilhelm Wundt

Created psychology's first experiment. Opened the first psychology school in Leipzig Germany.

8

Structuralism

Early school of psychology that used introspection to study the elemental structure of the human mind.

9

Edward Titchner

Brought structuralism to the U.S.

10

Introspection

Observation of ones own mental processes.

11

Functionalism

A school of psychology that focused on mental and behavioral process.

12

William James

Developed functionalism. Mentored Mary Calkins.

13

Mary Calkins

Taught by William James and then went on to become a memory researcher.

14

Margaret Floy Washburn

First female psychologist to receive Ph. D.

15

Humanistic psychology

A perspective that emphasized the growth potential of healthy people. Full growth potential.

16

Nature/nurture issue

Do traits develop from experience or are we born with them?

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Natural selection

Nature chooses the best in the species to survive.

18

Levels of analysis

Differing complementary views, from biological to psychological to social-cultural, for analyzing any given phenomenon.

19

Basic research

Gathering of data to build psychology's knowledge base.

20

Applied research

Using data and applying it to real life.

21

Psychiatry

A branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders. Practiced by physicians who sometimes provide medical treatments as well as psychological therapy.

22

Counseling psychology

Looking at day to life, they help people with daily challenges by recognizing their strengths and resources.

23

Clinical psychology

Evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment of individuals with psychological disorders. (Mental, emotional, and behavioral)

24

Developmental psychologist

Look at human development from beginning to end of life.

25

Cognitive psychologist

Focuses on higher mental processes such as memory, reasoning, information processing, language, and problem solving.

26

Personality psychologists

Interested in describing and understanding individuals' consistency in behavior, which represents their personality. Also concerned with the factors that shape personality with personality assessment.

27

Social psychologist

Focuses on interpersonal behavior and the role of social forces in governing behavior.

28

Biological Psychologists

Explore the links between mind and body.