Chapter 4 - Vocabulary Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 4 - Vocabulary Deck (26)
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Developmental Psychology

A branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the lifespan.

1

Zygote

The fertilized egg; it enters a 2-week period of rapid cell division and develops into an embryo.

2

Embryo

The developing human organism from about 2 weeks after fertilization through the second month.

3

Fetus

The developing human organism from nine weeks after conception to birth.

4

Teratogens

Chemicals and viruses that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm.

5

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)

Physical and cognitive abnormalities in children caused by a pregnant woman's heavy drinking. In severe cases, symptoms include noticeable facial misproportions.

6

Rooting Reflex

A baby's tendency, when touched on the cheek, to turn toward the touch, open mouth, and search for the nipple.

7

Habituation

Decreased responsiveness with repeated stimulation. As Infants gain familiarity with repeated exposure to a visual stimulus, their interest wanes and they look away sooner.

8

Maturation

Biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by experience.

9

Schematic

A concept or framework that organizes and interprets information.

10

Assimilation

Interpreting one's new experience in terms of existing schemas.

11

Accommodation

Adapting one's current understandings (schemas) to incorporate new information.

12

Cognition

All the mental processes associated with thinking, remembering, and communicating.

13

Sensorimotor Stage

In Paiget's theory, the stage (from birth to about 2-years) during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities.

14

Object Permanence

The awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived.

15

Preoperational Stage

In Piaget's theory, the stage from 2-6 years during which a child learns to use language but doesn't comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic.

16

Conservation

The principle (in which Piaget believed to be part of concrete operational reasoning) that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects.

17

Egocentricity

In Piaget's theory, the preoperational child's difficulty taking another's point of view.

18

Theory of Mind

People's ideas about their own and others' mental states - about their feelings, perceptions, and thoughts and behavior these might predict.

19

Autism

A disorder that appears in childhood and is marked by deficient communication, social interaction, and understanding of others' states of mind.

20

Concrete Operational Stage

In Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development from about 7 to 11 years of age during which children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events.

21

Formal Operational Stage

In Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development normally beginning at age 12 during which people begin to think logically about abstract concepts.

22

Stranger Anxiety

The fear of strangers that infants commonly display, beginning by about 8 months of age.

23

Attachment

An emotional tie with another person; shown in young children by their seeking closeness to the caregiver and showing distress on separation.

24

Secure Attachment

If an infant has a secure attachment they will play comfortably and explore when place in a strange situation. (Usually a laboratory playroom.) when the mother leaves, the infant becomes distressed and when she returns they seek contact with her.

25

Insecure Attachment

If the infant has an insecure attachment, they will be less likely to play or explore and may even cling to their mother. When she leaves, they either cry loudly and seem upset or be indifferent to their mother's presence.