Chapter 1 - Vocabulary Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 1 - Vocabulary Deck (32)
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Hindsight Bias

The tendency to believe after learning an outcome that one would have foreseen it. The I-knew-it-all-along phenomenon.

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Overconfidence

Tends to often lead us to overestimate our intuition.

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Critical Thinking

Thinking that doesn't blindly accept arguments or conclusions. Rather, it examines assumptions, discerns, hidden values, evaluated evidence, and assesses conclusions.

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Scientific Method

Make observations, form theories, and then refine theories in the light of new observations.

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Hypothesis

A testable prediction often implied by a theory.

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Operational Definitions

A statement of the procedures (operations) used to define research variables. For example, human intelligence may be operationally defined as what an intelligence test measures.

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Replicate

Repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances.

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Case Study

An observation technique in which one person is studied in depth, in hopes of revealing universal principles.

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Survey

A technique for ascertaining the self reported attitudes or behaviors of people usually by questioning a representative random sample of them.

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False Consensus Effect

The tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors.

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Population

All the cases in a group, from which samples may be drawn for study.

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Random Sample

A sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion.

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Naturalistic Observations

Observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation.

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Correlate/Correlational research

A measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other. Correlations just describe a relationship, not causality. 0 is a low relationship while 1 is a very strong one.

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Scatter plots

A graphed cluster of dots, each which represents the values of two variables. The slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationship between the variables. The amount of scatter suggests the strength of the relationship.

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Illusory Correlation

The perception of a relationship where none exists.

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Experiment

A research method in which an investigation manipulates one or more factors (independent variables) to observe the same behavior or mental process.

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Double-blind Procedure

An experimental procedure in which both the researchers and participants are ignorant (blind) about whether the participants are receiving the treatment or a placebo.

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Placebo Effect

Experimental results caused by expectations alone. Any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which is assumed to be an active agent.

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Experimental Condition

The condition of an experiment that exposes participants to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable.

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Control Condition

The condition of an experiment that contrasts with experimental condition and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment.

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Random Assignment

Assigning the participants to experimental and control conditions by chance, thus minimizing per existing differences between those assigned to different groups.

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Independent Variables

The experimental factor that is manpulated. The variable whose effects are being studied.

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Dependent Variable

Outcome Factor. The variable that May change in response to the manipulations of the independent variable.

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Mode

The most frequently occurring score(s) in a distribution.

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Mean

The average of a distribution. Obtained by adding the scores and then dividing the total by the number of scores. Can be distorted by a few atypical scores.

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Median

The middle score in a distribution. Half are above and below.

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Range

The difference of the highest and lowest scores. It is easily distorted by a few atypical scores.

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Standard Deviation

A computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score.

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Statistical Signifigance

A statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance.

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Culture

The enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions, shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next.

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Wording Effects

The wording of a question is very important and the choice of words can skew the results. A researcher needs to pick their words carefully.