Chapter 2 - Second Half Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 2 - Second Half Deck (26)
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Brain stem

Oldest part of the brain. Responsible for automatic survival functions.

1

Medulla

Base of the brainstem that controls heart beats and breathing.

2

Reticular Formation

A nerve network in the brainstem that plays an important role in arousal.

3

Thalamus

The brains sensory switchboard located on top of the brainstem. It directs messages to the sensory receiving areas on the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla.

4

Hippocampus

A neural center that is located in the limbic system and helps process explicit memories for storage.

5

Pons

A part of the brain that connects the medulla and the thalamus.

6

Cerebellum

Little brain; it processes sensory input and coordinates movement output and balance.

7

Limbic System

A doughnut shaped system of neural structures at the boarder of the brain stem and the cerebral hemispheres. Associated with emotions such as fear and anger and drives those such as hunger and sex.

8

Amygdala

Lima bean sized neural clusters that are components of the limbic system and are linked to emotion.

9

Hypothalamus

Directs maintenance activities and helps govern the endocrine system with the pituitary gland. It. Is linked to emotion.

10

Cerebral Cortex

The intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells that covers the cerebral hemispheres. The body's ultimate control and information processing center.

11

Glial cells

Cells in the nervous system that support, nourish, and protect neurons.

12

Frontal lobe

Behind the forehead, involved in speaking, muscle movements, and making plans and judgements.

13

Occipital lobes

Back of the head, includes visual areas which receive visual information from opposite visual fields.

14

Parietal lobe

Top rear of head; receives sensory input for touch and body position.

15

Temporal lobe

Side of head by ears; includes auditory information usually from opposite ear.

16

Motor cortex

An area at the rear of the frontal lobes that controls voluntary movements.

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Sensory cortex

An area at the front of the parietal lobe that processes and registers body touch and movement sensation.

18

Association areas

Areas of the cerebral cortex that are not involved in primary motor or sensory functions. Rather they are involved in higher mental processes such as learning, remembering, thinking, and speaking.

19

Phineas Gage

He survived after a pole was fired through his brain. After the incident, his personality changed.

20

Aphasia

Impairment of language usually caused by left hemisphere damage to either Broca's or Wernicke's area.

21

Broca's area

Language expression; an area of the frontal lobe usually in the left hemisphere that directs muscle movement involved in speech.

22

Wernicke's area

Language reception; a brain area involved in language comprehension and expression usually in the left temporal lobe.

23

Plasticity

Refers to the brains ability to modify itself after some type of injury or illness.

24

Corpus callosum

A large band of neural fibers connecting the two brain hemispheres and carrying messages between them.

25

Split brain

A condition in which the two hemispheres of the brain are isolated by cutting the fibers between them. The fibers are usually those of the corpus callosum.