Flashcards in Chapter 9 - Vocabulary Deck (32)
The persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information.
A clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event.
The processing of information into the memory system - for example, by extracting meaning.
The retention of encoded information over time.
The process of getting information out of memory storage.
The immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system.
Short Term Memory
Activated memory that holds a few items briefly, such as the seven digits of a phone number while dialing, before the information is stored or forgotten.
Long Term Memory
The relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system. Includes knowledge, skills, and experiences.
A newer understanding of short-term memory that involves conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial information, and of information retrieved from long-term memory.
Unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as time, space, and frequency, and of well-learned information, such as word meanings.
Encoding that requires attention and conscious effort.
The conscious repetition of information, either to maintain it in consciousness or to encode it in storage.
The tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice.
Serial Position Effect
Our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list.
The encoding of picture images.
The encoding of sound, especially the sound of words.
The encoding of meaning, including the meaning of words.
Mental pictures; a powerful aid to effortful processing, especially when combined with semantic encoding.
Memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices.
Organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically.
A momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photographic or picture memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second.
A momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds.
The loss of memory.
Retention independent of conscious recollection. (Procedural Memory)
Memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and declare. (Declarative Memory)
A neural center that is located in the Limbic System and helps process explicit memories for storage.
A measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier as on a fill-in-the-blank test.
A measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned as on a multiple choice test.
A memory measure that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material for a second time.
Bits of information associated with other information. These pieces of information can be like tags or hints that can be used to retrieve the information.
The activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations in memory.