Chapter 9 - Vocabulary Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 9 - Vocabulary Deck (32)
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Memory

The persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information.

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Flashbulb Memory

A clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event.

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Encoding

The processing of information into the memory system - for example, by extracting meaning.

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Storage

The retention of encoded information over time.

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Retrieval

The process of getting information out of memory storage.

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Sensory Memory

The immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system.

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Short Term Memory

Activated memory that holds a few items briefly, such as the seven digits of a phone number while dialing, before the information is stored or forgotten.

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Long Term Memory

The relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system. Includes knowledge, skills, and experiences.

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Working Memory

A newer understanding of short-term memory that involves conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial information, and of information retrieved from long-term memory.

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Automatic Processing

Unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as time, space, and frequency, and of well-learned information, such as word meanings.

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Effortful Processing

Encoding that requires attention and conscious effort.

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Rehearsal

The conscious repetition of information, either to maintain it in consciousness or to encode it in storage.

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Spacing Effect

The tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice.

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Serial Position Effect

Our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list.

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Visual Encoding

The encoding of picture images.

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Acoustic Encoding

The encoding of sound, especially the sound of words.

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Semantic Encoding

The encoding of meaning, including the meaning of words.

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Imagery

Mental pictures; a powerful aid to effortful processing, especially when combined with semantic encoding.

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Mnemonics

Memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices.

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Chunking

Organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically.

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Iconic Memory

A momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photographic or picture memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second.

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Echoic Memory

A momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds.

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Amnesia

The loss of memory.

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Implicit Memory

Retention independent of conscious recollection. (Procedural Memory)

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Explicit Memory

Memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and declare. (Declarative Memory)

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Hippocampus

A neural center that is located in the Limbic System and helps process explicit memories for storage.

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Recall

A measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier as on a fill-in-the-blank test.

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Recognition

A measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned as on a multiple choice test.

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Relearning

A memory measure that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material for a second time.

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Retrieval Cues

Bits of information associated with other information. These pieces of information can be like tags or hints that can be used to retrieve the information.

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Priming

The activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations in memory.

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Déjà vu

The eerie sense that 'I've experienced this before.' Cues from the current situation may subconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier experience.