Flashcards in Chapter 4 - Second Half Deck (26)
An optimal period shortly after birth when an organism's exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces proper development.
The process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life.
According to Erik Erikson, a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy; said to be formed during infancy by appropriate experiences with responsible caregivers.
A sense of one's identity and personal worth.
Impose rules and expect obedience.
Submit to their children's desires, make few demands, and use little punishment.
Both demanding and responsive. They exert control not only by setting rules and enforcing them but also by explaining the reasons, and encouraging open discussion and allow exceptions when making rules.
The transition from childhood to adulthood, extending from puberty to independence.
The period of sexual maturation, during which a person becomes capable of reproducing.
Primary Sex Characteristics
The body structures that make sexual reproduction possible.
Secondary Sex Characteristics
Non-reproductive sexual characteristics, such as female breasts and hips, male voice quality, and body hair.
The first menstrual period.
Before age 9, most children have a pre-conventional morality of self-interest: they either obey to avoid punishment or to gain concrete rewards.
By early adolescence, morality usually evolves to a more conventional level that cares for others and upholds laws and social rules simply because they are the laws and rules.
Some of those who develop the abstract reasoning of formal operational thought may come to a third level. Post-conventional morality affirms people's agreed upon rights or follows what one personally perceives as basic ethical principles.
Sought to describe the development of moral reasoning, the thinking that occurs as we consider right and wrong.
Contended that each stage of life had its own psychosocial task, a crisis that needs resolution.
One's sense of self; according to Erikson, the adolescent's task is to solidify a sense of self by testing and integrating various roles.
In Erikson's theory, the ability to form close, loving relationships; a primary developmental task in late adolescence and early adulthood.
The time of natural cessation of menstruation; also refers to the biological changes a woman experiences as her ability to reproduce declines.
A progressive and irreversible brain disorder characterized by gradual deterioration of memory, reasoning, and, finally, physical functioning.
A study in which people of different ages are compared with one another.
Research in which the same people are studied and retested over a long period.
One's accumulated knowledge and verbal skills; tends to increase with age.
One's ability to reason speedily and abstractly; tends to decrease with age.