Chapter 4 - Second Half Flashcards Preview

AP Psychology > Chapter 4 - Second Half > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 4 - Second Half Deck (26)
0

Critical Period

An optimal period shortly after birth when an organism's exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces proper development.

1

Imprinting

The process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life.

2

Basic Trust

According to Erik Erikson, a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy; said to be formed during infancy by appropriate experiences with responsible caregivers.

3

Self-concept

A sense of one's identity and personal worth.

4

Authoritarian Parents

Impose rules and expect obedience.

5

Permissive Parents

Submit to their children's desires, make few demands, and use little punishment.

6

Authoritative Parents

Both demanding and responsive. They exert control not only by setting rules and enforcing them but also by explaining the reasons, and encouraging open discussion and allow exceptions when making rules.

7

Adolescence

The transition from childhood to adulthood, extending from puberty to independence.

8

Puberty

The period of sexual maturation, during which a person becomes capable of reproducing.

9

Primary Sex Characteristics

The body structures that make sexual reproduction possible.

10

Secondary Sex Characteristics

Non-reproductive sexual characteristics, such as female breasts and hips, male voice quality, and body hair.

11

Menarche

The first menstrual period.

12

Preconventional Morality

Before age 9, most children have a pre-conventional morality of self-interest: they either obey to avoid punishment or to gain concrete rewards.

13

Conventional Morality

By early adolescence, morality usually evolves to a more conventional level that cares for others and upholds laws and social rules simply because they are the laws and rules.

14

Postconventional Morality

Some of those who develop the abstract reasoning of formal operational thought may come to a third level. Post-conventional morality affirms people's agreed upon rights or follows what one personally perceives as basic ethical principles.

15

Lawrence Kohlberg

Sought to describe the development of moral reasoning, the thinking that occurs as we consider right and wrong.

16

Erik Erikson

Contended that each stage of life had its own psychosocial task, a crisis that needs resolution.

17

Identity

One's sense of self; according to Erikson, the adolescent's task is to solidify a sense of self by testing and integrating various roles.

18

Intimacy

In Erikson's theory, the ability to form close, loving relationships; a primary developmental task in late adolescence and early adulthood.

19

Menopause

The time of natural cessation of menstruation; also refers to the biological changes a woman experiences as her ability to reproduce declines.

20

Alzheimer's Disease

A progressive and irreversible brain disorder characterized by gradual deterioration of memory, reasoning, and, finally, physical functioning.

21

Cross-sectional Study

A study in which people of different ages are compared with one another.

22

Longitudinal Study

Research in which the same people are studied and retested over a long period.

23

Crystallized Intelligence

One's accumulated knowledge and verbal skills; tends to increase with age.

24

Fluid Intelligence

One's ability to reason speedily and abstractly; tends to decrease with age.

25

Social Clock

The culturally timing of social events such as marriage, parenthood, and retirement.