Chapter 8 - Vocabulary First Half Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 8 - Vocabulary First Half Deck (25)
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Learning

A relatively permanent change in behavior as a result of experience.

1

Classical Conditioning

A type of learning in which an organism comes to associate stimuli. A neutral stimulus that signals an unconditioned stimulus (US) begins to produce a response that anticipates and prepares for the unconditioned stimulus.

2

Associative Learning

Learning that certain events occur together. The events may be two stimuli or a response and its consequences.

3

Behaviorism

The view that psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Most research psychologists agree 1 but not 2.

4

Unconditioned Response (UR)

In classic conditioning, the unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus (US), such as salvation when food is in the mouth.

5

Unconditioned Stimulus (US)

In classical conditioning, a stimulus that unconditionally - naturally and automatically - triggers a response.

6

Conditioned Response (CR)

In classical conditioning, the learned response to a previously neutral stimulus.

7

Conditioned Stimulus (CS)

In classical conditioning, an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus (US), comes to trigger a conditioned response.

8

Neutral Stimulus (NS)

A neutral stimulus is a stimulus which initially produces no specific response other than focusing attention. In classical conditioning, when used together with an unconditioned stimulus, the neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus.

9

Ivan Pavlov

Studied salivary secretion in dogs. Came across the study of classical conditioning during this.

10

Acquisition

The initial stage in classical conditioning; the phase associating a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus comes to elicit a conditioned response. In operant conditioning, the strengthening of a reinforced response.

11

Extinction

The diminishing of a conditioned response; occurred in classical conditioning when an unconditioned stimulus doesn't follow a conditioned stimulus; occurs in operant conditioning when a response is no longer reinforced.

12

Spontaneous Recovery

The reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response.

13

Generalization

The tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses.

14

Discrimination

In classical conditioning, the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and stimuli that don't signal an unconditioned stimulus.

15

Taste Aversion

A strong enough response from a neutral stimulus to be learned after one try.

16

Operant Conditioning

A type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher.

17

Respondent Behavior

Behavior that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus; Skinner’s term for behavior learned through classical conditioning.

18

Operant Behavior

Behavior that operates on the environment, producing consequences.

19

Edward Thorndike

Influenced B. F. Skinner. He also recorded that rewarded behavior is likely to recur.

20

B. F. Skinner

Behaviorism's most influential and controversial figure. Studied operant conditioning.

21

Law of Effect

Thorndike’s principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely, and that behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely.

22

Operant Chamber

A chamber also known as a Skinner box, containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a food or water reinforcer, with attached devices to record the animal’s rate of bar pressing or key pecking. Used in operant conditioning research.

23

Shaping

An operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior.

24

Successive Approximation

You reward responses that are ever-closer to the final desired behavior, and ignore all other responses.