Chapter 6 - Vocabulary Flashcards Preview

AP Psychology > Chapter 6 - Vocabulary > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 6 - Vocabulary Deck (44)
0

Perception

The process of organizing and interpreting sensory information enabling us to recognize meaningful objects and events.

1

Selective Attention

The focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus, as in the cocktail party effect.

2

Cocktail party effect

Listening to one voice among many.

3

Inattentional blindness

Failing to see visual objects when our attention is directed elsewhere.

4

Change blindness

We sometimes fail to notice changes because our attention is focused elsewhere.

5

Change deafness

We sometimes failed to notice a change in a person's voice.

6

Choice blindness

You fail to notice a change in a choice you made.

7

Choice blindness blindness

A blindness to the phenomenon of choice blindness.

8

Pop-out phenomenon

Stimuli that is so distinct that it demands our attention.

9

Illusions

Reveal the ways we normally organize and interpret our sensations.

10

Visual capture

The tendency for vision to dominate the other senses.

11

Gestalt

An organized whole. Gestalt psychologists emphasized our tendency to integrate pieces of information into meaningful wholes.

12

Figure ground

The organization of the visual field into objects that stand out from their surroundings.

13

Grouping

The perceptual tendency to organize stimuli into coherent groups.

14

Proximity

We group nearby figures together.

15

Similarity

We group together figures that are similar to each other.

16

Continuity

We perceive smooth and continuous patterns rather than discontinuous ones.

17

Connectedness

Because they are uniform and linked, we perceive the two dots and the line between them as a single unit.

18

Closure

We fill in gaps to create a complete whole object.

19

Depth perception

The ability to see objects in three dimensions although the images that strike the retina are two dimensional; allows us to judge distance.

20

Visual cliff

A laboratory device for testing depth perception in infants and young animals.

21

Binocular cues

Depth cues, such as retinal disparity and convergence, that depend on the use of two eyes.

22

Retinal disparity

A binocular cue for perceiving depth: by comparing images from the two eyes, the brain computes the distance - the greater the disparity between the two images, the closer the object.

23

Convergence

A binocular cue for perceiving depth: the extent to which the eyes converge inward when looking at an object. The greater the inward strain, the closer the object.

24

Monocular cues

Depth cues that are available to either eye alone.

25

Relative size

If we assume that two objects are similar in size, we perceive the one that casts the smaller retinal image as farther away.

26

Interposition

If one object partially blocks our view of another, we perceive it as closer.

27

Relative clarity

Because light from distant objects passes through more atmosphere, we perceive hazy objects as farther away than sharp, clear objects. In fog or snow, the car in front of you may therefore seem farther away than it is.

28

Texture gradient

A gradual change from a coarse, distinct texture to a fine, indistinct textures signals increasing distance. Objects faraway are smaller and are more densely packed.

29

Relative height

We perceive objects higher in our field of vision as farther away. Because we perceive the lower part of a figure-ground as closer, we perceive it as figure.

30

Relative motion

As we move, objects that are actually stable may appear to move. If while riding on a bus you fix your gaze on an object, the objects closer than the fixation point appear to move backwards.

31

Linear perspective

Parallel lines such as railroad tracks, appear to converge with distance.the more the lines converge, the greater the distance.

32

Light and Shadow

Nearby objects reflect more light to our eyes. Given two identical objects, the dimmer one appears to be farther away.

33

Phi phenomenon

An illusion of movement created when two or more adjacent lights blink on and off in quick succession.

34

Perceptual constancy

Perceiving objects as unchanging even as illumination and retinal images change.

35

Shape constancy

We perceive the form of familiar objects as constant even when our retinal images of them change.

36

Size constancy

We perceive objects as having a constant size even while our distance from them varies.

37

Perceptual adaptation

In vision, the ability to adjust to an artificially displaced or even inverted visual field.

38

Perceptual set

A mental predisposition to perceive one thing and not another.

39

Schema

Through experience we form concepts that organize and interpret unfamiliar information.

40

Context effects

The context of the effect determines how you interpret it.

41

Human factors psychology

A branch of psychology that explores how people and machines interact and how machines and physical environments can be made safe to use.

42

Extrasensory perception (ESP)

The controversial claim that perception can occur apart from sensory input. Said to include telepathy, clairvoyance, and precognition.

43

Parapsychology

The study of paranormal phenomena, including ESP and psychokinesis.