Chapter 7 - Vocabulary Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 7 - Vocabulary Deck (43)
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Consciousness

Our awareness of ourselves and our environment.

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Biological Rhythms

Periodic psychological fluctuations

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Circadian Rhythm

The biological clock; regular bodily rhythms that occur on a 24-hour cycle.

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REM Sleep

Rapid eye movement sleep, a recurring sleep stage during which vivid dreams commonly occur. Also known as paradoxical sleep, because the muscles are relaxed but other body systems stay active.

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Alpha waves

The relatively slow brain waves of a relaxed and awake state.

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Sleep

Periodic, natural, reversible loss of consciousness - as distinct from unconsciousness resulting from a coma, general anesthesia, or hibernation.

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Hallucinations

False sensory experiences, such as seeing something in the absence of an external stimulus.

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Delta waves

The slow large brain waves associated with deep sleep.

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Insomnia

Recurring problems in falling or staying asleep.

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Narcolepsy

A sleep disorder characterized by uncontrollable sleep attacks. The sufferer may lapse into REM sleep, often at inopportune times.

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Sleep apnea

A sleep disorder characterized by temporary cessations of breathing during sleep and repeated momentary awakenings.

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Night terrors

A sleep disorder characterized by high arousal and an appearance of being terrified; unlike nightmares, night terrors occur during stage 4 sleep, within two to three hours of falling asleep, and are seldom remembered.

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Dream

A sequence of images, emotions, and thoughts passing through a sleeping person’s mind. Dreams are notable for their hallucinatory imagery, discontinuities, and incongruities, and for the dreamer’s delusional acceptance of the content and later difficulties remembering it.

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Manifest content

According to Freud, the remembered storyline of a dream.

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Latent content

According to Freud the underlying meaning of a dream. Freud believed that a dream's latent content functions serve as a safety valve.

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REM Rebound

The tendency for REM sleep to increase following sleep deprivation.

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Hypnosis

A social interaction in which one person suggests to another that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts, or behaviors will spontaneously occur.

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Post-hypnotic Suggestion

A suggestion, made during a hypnosis session, to be carried out after the subject is no longer hypnotized; used by some clinicians to help control undesired symptoms and behaviors.

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Dissociation

A split in consciousness, which allows some thoughts and behaviors to occur simultaneously with others.

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Psychoactive Drug

A chemical substance that alters perception and mood.

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Tolerance

The diminishing effect with regular use of the same dose of a drug, requiring the user to take larger and larger doses before experiencing the drug’s effect.

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Withdrawal

The discomfort and distress that follow discontinuing the use of an addictive drug.

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Physical Dependence

A psychological need for a drug, marked by unpleasant withdrawal symptoms when the drug is discontinued.

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Psychological Dependance

A psychological need for a drug, such as to relieve negative emotions.

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Addiction

A compulsive drug craving and use.

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Depressants

Drugs that reduce neural activity and slow body functions.

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Barbiturates

Drugs that depress the activity of the CNS, reducing anxiety but impairing memory and judgement.

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Opiates

Opium and its derivatives, such as morphine and heroin; they depress neural activity, temporarily lessening pain and anxiety.

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Stimulants

Drugs (such as caffeine, nicotine, cocaine, and ecstasy) that excite neural activity and speed up body functions.

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Amphetamines

Drugs that stimulate neural activity, causing speeded-up body functions and associated energy and mood changes.

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Methamphetamine

A powerfully addictive drug that stimulates the CNS, with speeded-up body functions and associated energy and mood changes; over time, appears to reduce baseline dopamine levels.

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Ecstasy (MDMA)

A synthetic stimulant and mild hallucinogen. Produces euphoria and social intimacy, but with short term health risks and long term harm to serotonin-producing neurons and to mood and cognition.

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Hallucinogens

Psychedelic drugs, such as LSD, that distort perceptions and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input.

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LSD

A powerful hallucinogenic drug; also known as acid.

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THC

A major active ingredient in marijuana; triggers a variety of effects, including mild hallucinations.

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Near-Death Experience

An altered state of consciousness reported after a close brush with death; often similar to drug-induced hallucinations.

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Dualism

The presumption that mind and body are two distinct entities that interact.

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Monolism

The presumption that mind and body are separate aspects of the same thing.

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Information Processing

Dreams help us sort out the day's events and consolidate our memories.

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Physiological Function

Regular brain stimulation from REM sleep may help develop and preserve neural pathways.

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Activation Synthesis

REM sleep triggers neural activity that evokes random visual memories, which our sleeping brain weaves into stories.

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Cognitive Theory

Dream content reflects dreamers' cognitive development - their knowledge and understanding. Aids in brain maturation.

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Anton Franz Mesmor

Discovered hypnosis thinking it was animal magnetism.