Chapter 8 - Second Half Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 8 - Second Half Deck (21)
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Reinforcer

In operant conditioning, any event that strengthens the behavior it follows.

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Positive Reinforcement

Increasing behavior by presenting positive stimuli, such as food. A positive reinforcer is any stimulus that, when presented after a response, strengthens the response.

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Negative Reinforcement

Increasing behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli, such as shock. A negative reinforcer is any stimuli that, when removed after a response strengthens the response.

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Primary Reinforcer

In innately reinforcing stimulus, such as one that satisfies a biological need.

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Conditioned Reinforcer

A stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer; also known as a secondary reinforcer.

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Continuous Reinforcement

Reinforcing the desired response every time it occurs.

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Partial reinforcement

Reinforcing a response only part of the time; results in slower acquisition of a response but much greater reduces extinction than continuous reinforcement.

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Fixed Ratio Schedule

In operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses.

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Variable Ratio Schedule

In operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses.

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Fixed Interval Schedule

In operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed.

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Variable Interval Schedule

In operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals.

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Punishment

An event that decreases the behavior it follows.

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Cognitive Map

A mental representation of the layout of one's environment. For example, after exploring a maze, rats act as if they have learned a cognitive map of it.

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Latent Learning

Learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it.

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Intrinsic Motivation

A desire to perform a behavior for its own sake.

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Extrinsic Motivation

A desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats and punishment.

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Observational Learning

Learned during observation of others.

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Modeling

The process of observing and imitating a specific behavior.

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Mirror Neurons

Frontal Lobe neurons that fire when performing certain actions or when observing another do so. The brain's mirroring of another's actions may enable imitation, language, learning, and empathy.

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Albert Bandura

The pioneering researcher of observational learning. Associated with the Bobo doll experiment. We are likely to imitate actions that go unpunished. We also tend to imitate models we perceive as similar to us, successful, or admirable.

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Prosocial Behavior

Positive, constructive, helpful behavior. The opposite of Antisocial Behavior.