Flashcards in Chapter 8 - Second Half Deck (21)
In operant conditioning, any event that strengthens the behavior it follows.
Increasing behavior by presenting positive stimuli, such as food. A positive reinforcer is any stimulus that, when presented after a response, strengthens the response.
Increasing behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli, such as shock. A negative reinforcer is any stimuli that, when removed after a response strengthens the response.
In innately reinforcing stimulus, such as one that satisfies a biological need.
A stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer; also known as a secondary reinforcer.
Reinforcing the desired response every time it occurs.
Reinforcing a response only part of the time; results in slower acquisition of a response but much greater reduces extinction than continuous reinforcement.
Fixed Ratio Schedule
In operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses.
Variable Ratio Schedule
In operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses.
Fixed Interval Schedule
In operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed.
Variable Interval Schedule
In operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals.
An event that decreases the behavior it follows.
A mental representation of the layout of one's environment. For example, after exploring a maze, rats act as if they have learned a cognitive map of it.
Learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it.
A desire to perform a behavior for its own sake.
A desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats and punishment.
Learned during observation of others.
The process of observing and imitating a specific behavior.
Frontal Lobe neurons that fire when performing certain actions or when observing another do so. The brain's mirroring of another's actions may enable imitation, language, learning, and empathy.
The pioneering researcher of observational learning. Associated with the Bobo doll experiment. We are likely to imitate actions that go unpunished. We also tend to imitate models we perceive as similar to us, successful, or admirable.