Flashcards in Chapter 5 - Vocabulary Deck (49)
The process by which our sensory receptors and nervous system receive and represent stimulus energies from our environments.
The process of organizing and interpreting sensory information enabling us to recognize meaningful objects and events.
Analysis that begins with the sensory receptors and works up to the brains integration of sensory information.
Information processing guided by a higher level mental process, as we construct perceptions drawing on our experiences and expectations.
A condition that after losing or damaging a temporal lobe area, the ability to recognize faces is lost.
A study of relationships between the physical characteristics of stimuli, such as intensity, and our psychological experience of them.
The minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus 50% of the time.
Signal detection theory
A theory predicting how and when we detect the presence of a faint stimulus amid a background and detection depends partially on a persons experience, expectations, motivations, and level of fatigue.
Below ones absolute threshold for conscious awareness.
The activation often unconsciously, of certain associations, thus predisposing one's perception, memory, or response.
The minimum difference between two stimuli required for detection 50% of the time. We experience the difference threshold as a just noticeable difference.
The principle that, to be perceived as different, two stimuli must differ by a constant minimum percentage.
Diminished sensitivity as a consequence of constant stimulation.
Conversion of one form of energy to another. In sensation, the transforming of stimulus energies, such as sights and sounds, into neural impulses our brain can interperate.
The distance from the peak of one light or sound wave to the peak of the next. Electromagnetic wavelengths vary from the short blips of cosmic rays to the impulses of radio transmission.
The dimension of color that is determined by the wavelength of light; what we know as the color names of blue, green, yellow, and so forth.
The amount of energy in a light or sound wave, which we perceive as brightness or loudness, as determined by the wave's amplitude.
The adjustable opening in the center of the eye through which light enters.
The ring of muscle tissue that forms the colored portion of the eye around the pupil and controls the size of the pupil opening.
The transparent structure behind the pupil that changes shape to help focus near or far objects on the retina.
The process by which the lens changes shape to focus near or far objects on the retina.
The light-sensitive inner surface of the eye, containing the receptor rods and cones plus layers of neurons that begin the processing of visual information.
The sharpness of vision.
A condition in which closer objects are seen more clearly than faraway objects because faraway objects focus in front of the retina.
A condition in which faraway objects are seen more clearly than near objects because the image of near objects is focused behind the retina.
Retinal receptor cells that detect black, white, and grey; necessary for peripheral and twilight vision, when cones don't respond.
Retinal receptor cells that are concentrated near the center of the retina and function in day-light or well lit conditions. The cones detect fine detail and give rise to color sensations.
The nerve that carries neural impulses from the eye to the brain.
The point at which the optic nerve leaves the eye, creating a blind spot.
The central focal point in the retina, around which the eye's cones cluster.
The processing of several aspects of a problem simultaneously; the brain's natural mode of information processing for many functions, including vision. Contrasts with the step-by-step processing of most computers and of conscious problem solving.
Young-Helmholtz trichromatic theory
The theory that the retina contains three different color receptors - one most sensitive to red, on to blue, and one to green - which when stimulated in combination can produce the perception of any color.
Opponent process theory
The theory that opposing retinal processes enable color vision. Some cells that are stimulated by green are inhibited by red and vice-versa.
Perceiving familiar objects as having a constant color, even if changing illumination alters the wavelengths reflected by the object.
The number of complete wavelengths that pass a point in a given time.
A tone's experienced highness or lowness; depends on frequency.
The chamber between the eardrum and the cochlea that concentrate the vibrations of the eardrum on the cochlea's oval window.
A coiled, bony, fluid-filled tube in the inner ear through which sound waves trigger nerve impulses.
The innermost part of the ear, containing the cochlea, semicircular canals, and the vestibular sacs.
In hearing, the theory that links the pitch we hear with the place where the cochlea's membrane is stimulated.
In hearing, the theory that the rate of nerve impulses traveling up the auditory nerve matches the frequency of a tone, thus enabling us to sense its pitch.
Conduction hearing loss
Hearing loss caused by damage to the mechanical system that conducts sound waves to the cochlea.
Sensorineural hearing loss
Hearing loss caused by damage to the cochlea's receptor cells or to the auditory nerves; also called nerve deafness.
A device for converting sounds into electrical signals and stimulates the auditory nerve through electrodes threaded into the cochlea.
Gate control theory
The theory that the spinal cord contains a neurological gate that blocks pain signals or allows them to pass on to the brain. The gate is opened by the activity of pain signals traveling up the small nerve fibers and is closed by the activity in large fibers or by information coming from the brain.
The principle that one sense may influence another, as when the smell of food influences its taste.
The system for sensing the position and movement of individual body parts.