Chapter 5 - Vocabulary Flashcards Preview

AP Psychology > Chapter 5 - Vocabulary > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 5 - Vocabulary Deck (49)
0

Sensation

The process by which our sensory receptors and nervous system receive and represent stimulus energies from our environments.

1

Perception

The process of organizing and interpreting sensory information enabling us to recognize meaningful objects and events.

2

Bottom-up processing

Analysis that begins with the sensory receptors and works up to the brains integration of sensory information.

3

Top-down processing

Information processing guided by a higher level mental process, as we construct perceptions drawing on our experiences and expectations.

4

Prosopagnosia

A condition that after losing or damaging a temporal lobe area, the ability to recognize faces is lost.

5

Psychopsychics

A study of relationships between the physical characteristics of stimuli, such as intensity, and our psychological experience of them.

6

Absolute threshold

The minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus 50% of the time.

7

Signal detection theory

A theory predicting how and when we detect the presence of a faint stimulus amid a background and detection depends partially on a persons experience, expectations, motivations, and level of fatigue.

8

Subliminal

Below ones absolute threshold for conscious awareness.

9

Priming

The activation often unconsciously, of certain associations, thus predisposing one's perception, memory, or response.

10

Difference threshold

The minimum difference between two stimuli required for detection 50% of the time. We experience the difference threshold as a just noticeable difference.

11

Weber's law

The principle that, to be perceived as different, two stimuli must differ by a constant minimum percentage.

12

Sensory adaptation

Diminished sensitivity as a consequence of constant stimulation.

13

Transduction

Conversion of one form of energy to another. In sensation, the transforming of stimulus energies, such as sights and sounds, into neural impulses our brain can interperate.

14

Wavelength

The distance from the peak of one light or sound wave to the peak of the next. Electromagnetic wavelengths vary from the short blips of cosmic rays to the impulses of radio transmission.

15

Hue

The dimension of color that is determined by the wavelength of light; what we know as the color names of blue, green, yellow, and so forth.

16

Intensity

The amount of energy in a light or sound wave, which we perceive as brightness or loudness, as determined by the wave's amplitude.

17

Pupil

The adjustable opening in the center of the eye through which light enters.

18

Iris

The ring of muscle tissue that forms the colored portion of the eye around the pupil and controls the size of the pupil opening.

19

Lens

The transparent structure behind the pupil that changes shape to help focus near or far objects on the retina.

20

Accommodation

The process by which the lens changes shape to focus near or far objects on the retina.

21

Retina

The light-sensitive inner surface of the eye, containing the receptor rods and cones plus layers of neurons that begin the processing of visual information.

22

Acuity

The sharpness of vision.

23

Nearsightedness

A condition in which closer objects are seen more clearly than faraway objects because faraway objects focus in front of the retina.

24

Farsightedness

A condition in which faraway objects are seen more clearly than near objects because the image of near objects is focused behind the retina.

25

Rods

Retinal receptor cells that detect black, white, and grey; necessary for peripheral and twilight vision, when cones don't respond.

26

Cones

Retinal receptor cells that are concentrated near the center of the retina and function in day-light or well lit conditions. The cones detect fine detail and give rise to color sensations.

27

Optic nerve

The nerve that carries neural impulses from the eye to the brain.

28

Blind spot

The point at which the optic nerve leaves the eye, creating a blind spot.

29

Fovea

The central focal point in the retina, around which the eye's cones cluster.

30

Parallel processing

The processing of several aspects of a problem simultaneously; the brain's natural mode of information processing for many functions, including vision. Contrasts with the step-by-step processing of most computers and of conscious problem solving.

31

Young-Helmholtz trichromatic theory

The theory that the retina contains three different color receptors - one most sensitive to red, on to blue, and one to green - which when stimulated in combination can produce the perception of any color.

32

Opponent process theory

The theory that opposing retinal processes enable color vision. Some cells that are stimulated by green are inhibited by red and vice-versa.

33

Color constancy

Perceiving familiar objects as having a constant color, even if changing illumination alters the wavelengths reflected by the object.

34

Audition

Hearing.

35

Frequency

The number of complete wavelengths that pass a point in a given time.

36

Pitch

A tone's experienced highness or lowness; depends on frequency.

37

Middle ear

The chamber between the eardrum and the cochlea that concentrate the vibrations of the eardrum on the cochlea's oval window.

38

Cochlea

A coiled, bony, fluid-filled tube in the inner ear through which sound waves trigger nerve impulses.

39

Inner ear

The innermost part of the ear, containing the cochlea, semicircular canals, and the vestibular sacs.

40

Place theory

In hearing, the theory that links the pitch we hear with the place where the cochlea's membrane is stimulated.

41

Frequency theory

In hearing, the theory that the rate of nerve impulses traveling up the auditory nerve matches the frequency of a tone, thus enabling us to sense its pitch.

42

Conduction hearing loss

Hearing loss caused by damage to the mechanical system that conducts sound waves to the cochlea.

43

Sensorineural hearing loss

Hearing loss caused by damage to the cochlea's receptor cells or to the auditory nerves; also called nerve deafness.

44

Cochlear implant

A device for converting sounds into electrical signals and stimulates the auditory nerve through electrodes threaded into the cochlea.

45

Gate control theory

The theory that the spinal cord contains a neurological gate that blocks pain signals or allows them to pass on to the brain. The gate is opened by the activity of pain signals traveling up the small nerve fibers and is closed by the activity in large fibers or by information coming from the brain.

46

Sensory interaction

The principle that one sense may influence another, as when the smell of food influences its taste.

47

Kinesthesis

The system for sensing the position and movement of individual body parts.

48

Vestibular sense

The sense of body movement and position, including the sense if balance.