Chapter 5 - Vocabulary Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 5 - Vocabulary Deck (49)
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Sensation

The process by which our sensory receptors and nervous system receive and represent stimulus energies from our environments.

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Perception

The process of organizing and interpreting sensory information enabling us to recognize meaningful objects and events.

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Bottom-up processing

Analysis that begins with the sensory receptors and works up to the brains integration of sensory information.

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Top-down processing

Information processing guided by a higher level mental process, as we construct perceptions drawing on our experiences and expectations.

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Prosopagnosia

A condition that after losing or damaging a temporal lobe area, the ability to recognize faces is lost.

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Psychopsychics

A study of relationships between the physical characteristics of stimuli, such as intensity, and our psychological experience of them.

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Absolute threshold

The minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus 50% of the time.

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Signal detection theory

A theory predicting how and when we detect the presence of a faint stimulus amid a background and detection depends partially on a persons experience, expectations, motivations, and level of fatigue.

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Subliminal

Below ones absolute threshold for conscious awareness.

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Priming

The activation often unconsciously, of certain associations, thus predisposing one's perception, memory, or response.

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Difference threshold

The minimum difference between two stimuli required for detection 50% of the time. We experience the difference threshold as a just noticeable difference.

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Weber's law

The principle that, to be perceived as different, two stimuli must differ by a constant minimum percentage.

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Sensory adaptation

Diminished sensitivity as a consequence of constant stimulation.

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Transduction

Conversion of one form of energy to another. In sensation, the transforming of stimulus energies, such as sights and sounds, into neural impulses our brain can interperate.

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Wavelength

The distance from the peak of one light or sound wave to the peak of the next. Electromagnetic wavelengths vary from the short blips of cosmic rays to the impulses of radio transmission.

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Hue

The dimension of color that is determined by the wavelength of light; what we know as the color names of blue, green, yellow, and so forth.

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Intensity

The amount of energy in a light or sound wave, which we perceive as brightness or loudness, as determined by the wave's amplitude.

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Pupil

The adjustable opening in the center of the eye through which light enters.

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Iris

The ring of muscle tissue that forms the colored portion of the eye around the pupil and controls the size of the pupil opening.

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Lens

The transparent structure behind the pupil that changes shape to help focus near or far objects on the retina.

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Accommodation

The process by which the lens changes shape to focus near or far objects on the retina.

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Retina

The light-sensitive inner surface of the eye, containing the receptor rods and cones plus layers of neurons that begin the processing of visual information.

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Acuity

The sharpness of vision.

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Nearsightedness

A condition in which closer objects are seen more clearly than faraway objects because faraway objects focus in front of the retina.

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Farsightedness

A condition in which faraway objects are seen more clearly than near objects because the image of near objects is focused behind the retina.

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Rods

Retinal receptor cells that detect black, white, and grey; necessary for peripheral and twilight vision, when cones don't respond.

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Cones

Retinal receptor cells that are concentrated near the center of the retina and function in day-light or well lit conditions. The cones detect fine detail and give rise to color sensations.

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Optic nerve

The nerve that carries neural impulses from the eye to the brain.

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Blind spot

The point at which the optic nerve leaves the eye, creating a blind spot.

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Fovea

The central focal point in the retina, around which the eye's cones cluster.