Chapter 11 - Vocabulary Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 11 - Vocabulary Deck (30)
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Intelligence

Mental quality consisting of the ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations.

1

Factor Analysis

A statistical procedure that identifies clusters of related items on a test; used to identify different dimensions of performance that underlie one's total score.

2

Savant Syndrome

A condition in which a person otherwise limited in mental ability has an exceptional specific skill, such as in computation or drawing.

3

General Intelligence (g)

A general intelligence factor that according to Spearman and others underlies specific mental abilities and is therefore measured by every task on an intelligence test.

4

Emotional Intelligence (EI)

The ability to perceive, understand, manage, and use emotions.

5

Intelligence Test

A method for assessing an individual's mental aptitudes and comparing them with those of others, using numerical scores.

6

Mental Age

A measure of intelligence test performance devised by Binet; the chronological age that most typically corresponds to a given level of performance. Thus, a child who does as well as the average 8-year-old is said to have a mental age of 8.

7

Stanford-Binet

The widely used American revision of Binet's original intelligence test.

8

Intelligence Quotient (IQ)

Defined originally as the ratio of mental age (ma) to chronological age (ca) multiplied by 100. On contemporary intelligence tests, the average performance for a given age is assigned to a score of 100.

9

Achievement Test

A test designed to assess what a person has learned.

10

Aptitude Test

A test designed to predict a person's future performance; aptitude is the capacity to learn.

11

Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)

The WAIS is the most widely used intelligence test; contains verbal performance subtests.

12

Standardization

Defining meaningful scores by comparison with the performance of a pretested standardization group.

13

Normal Curve

The symmetrical bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many physical and psychological attributes. Most scores fall near the average, and fewer scores lie near the extremes.
{Bell curve and most scores fall at the average.}

14

Reliability

The extent to which a test yields constant results, as assessed by the consistency of scores on two halves of the test, on alternate forms of the test, or on retesting.
{Constant results.}

15

Validity

The extent to which a test predicts the behavior that is of interest.

16

Mental Retardation

A condition of limited mental ability, indicated by an intelligence score of 70 or below and difficulty in adapting to the demands of life; varies from mild to profound.

17

Down Syndrome

A condition of retardation and associated physical disorders caused by an extra chromosome in the genetic makeup.

18

Stereotype Threat

A self-confirming concern that one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype.

19

Content Validity

The extent to which a test samples the behavior that is of interest.

20

Criterion

The behavior that a test is designed to predict; thus, the measure used in in defining whether the test has predictive validity.

21

Predictive Validity

{The success with which a test predicts the behavior it is designed to predict.} It is assessed by computing the correlation between test scores and the criterion behavior.

22

Charles Spearman

Helped develop factor analysis, believed there is also a general intelligence, or g factor that underlies the various clusters.
{g}

23

L. L. Thurstone

Rejected g-factor. Didn’t rank his subjects on a single scale of general aptitude. Argued that factor analysis revealed seven independent mental abilities.
{7 intelligences}

24

Howard Gardner

Stated that people have specific intellectual potentials, or “intelligences,” each involving a set of problem-solving skills. Multiple intelligences. (Linguistic, Logical-mathematical, Musical, Spatial, Bodily-kinesthetic, Intrapersonal (self), Interpersonal (other people), Naturalist)
{8 intelligences}

25

Robert Sternberg

Triarchic theory distinguishes three intelligences: analytical (academic problem-solving) intelligence, creative intelligence, and practical intelligence.

26

Alfred Binet

Started the modern intelligence-testing movement by developing questions that helped predict children’s future progress in the Paris school system. (Determining which students needed to be placed in Special Education classrooms)

27

Lewis Terman

A Stanford University Professor, Terman revised Binet’s original IQ test by establishing new age norms and extending the upper end of the test’s range from teenagers to “superior adults.” Supported the Nature side of the debate.
{Americanized Binet's intelligence scale.}

28

Reification

Viewing an abstract idea as a concrete idea.

29

Flynn Effect

Intelligence test performance improving.