Chapter 2 - Vocabulary Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 2 - Vocabulary Deck (31)
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Phrenology

A popular but outdated theory that claimed bumps on the head could reveal our mental abilities and characteristics.

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Biological Psychology

A branch of psychology concerned with the links between Psychology and Behavior.

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Neuron

A nerve cell. The basic building block of the nervous system.

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Dendrite

A bushy branching extension of a neuron that receives messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body.

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Axon

The extension of a neuron ending in branching terminal fibers, through which messages pass to other neurons or to muscles or glands.

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Myelin Sheath

A layer of fatty tissue segmentally encasing the fibers of many neurons; enables greater transmission speeds of neural impulses as the impulse hops from one node to the next. Protects the Axon.

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Action Potential

A neural impulse. A brief electrical charge that travels down the Axon. It is generated by the movement of positively charged atoms in and out of channels in the Axon's membrane.

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Threshold

A level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse.

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Synapse

A junction between the Terminal Fibers of the sending neuron and the Dendrites of the receiving neuron. The tiny gap at this junction is called the synaptic gap.

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Neurotransmitters

Chemical messengers that traverse synaptic gaps between neurons, when released by the sending neurons, neurotransmitters travel across the synapse and bind to receptor sites on the receiving neuron, thereby influencing whether or not the neuron will generate a neural impulse.

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Acetylcholine, Ach

A neurotransmitter that enables learning and memory, and also triggers muscle contraption.

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Dopamine

Influences movement, learning, attention, and emotion.

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Serotonine

Affects mood, hunger, sleep, and arousal.

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Endorphins

Natural opiate-like neurotransmitters linked to pain control and pleasure.

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Nervous System

The body's speedy, electrochemical communication network, consisting of all the nerve cells of the Peripheral and Central Nervous Systems.

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Central Nervous System (CNS)

The brain and the spinal cord.

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Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)

The sensory and motor neurons that connects the Central Nervous System to the rest of the body.

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Nerves

Neural "cables" containing many Axons. Part of the PNS, that connect the CNS with muscles, glands, and organs.

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Sensory Neurons

Carry incoming information from the sensory receptors to the Central Nervous System.

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Motor Neurons

Carry outgoing information from the Central Nervous System to muscles and glands.

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Inter-Neurons

Connect Sensory and Motor Neurons.

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Somatic Nervous System

The division of the PNS that controls the body's skeletal system.

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Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)

Part of the PNS that controls glands and muscles.

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Sympathetic Nervous System

The division of the ANS that arouses the body, mobilizing it's energy in stressful situations.

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Parasympathetic Nervous System

The division of the ANS that calms the body, conserving its energy.

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Reflex

A simple, automatic, inborn response to a sensory stimulus, such as the knee-jerk.

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Neural Networks

Interconnected Neural Cells. With experience, networks can learn as feedback strengthens or inhibits connections that produce certain results.

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Endocrine System

The body's slow chemical communication system; a set of glands that secrete hormones into the blood stream.

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Hormones

Chemical messengers, mostly those manufactured by the endocrine glands, that are produced in one tissue and affect another.

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Adrenal Glands

A pair of endocrine glands above the kidneys. They secrete the hormones epinephrine and norepinephrine, which helps to arouse the body in times of stress.

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Pituitary Glands

The Endocrine Systems most influential glands. Under the influence of the hypothalamus, the pituitary glands regulate growth and controls other endocrine glands.