Chapter 10 - Vocabulary Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 10 - Vocabulary Deck (28)
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Cognition

The mental activities associated with thinking, remembering, and communicating.

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Concept

A mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people.

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Prototype

A mental image or best example of a category. Matching new items to the prototype provides a quick and easy method for including items in a category.

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Algorithm

A methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem. Contrasts with the usually speedier - but also more error-prone - use of heuristics.

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Heuristic

A simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgements and solve problems efficiently; usually speedier but also more error-prone than algorithms.

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Insight

A sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem; it contrasts with strategy-based solutions.

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Confirmation Bias

A tendency to search for information that confirms one's preconceptions.

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Fixation

The inability to see a problem from a new perspective; an impediment to problem solving.

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Mental Set

A tendency to approach a problem in a particular way, often a way that has been successful in the past.

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Functional Fixedness

The tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions; an impediment to problem solving.

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Representative Heuristic

Judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, particular prototypes; may lead one to ignore other relevant information.

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Availability Heuristic

Estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory; if instances come readily to mind (perhaps because of their vividness), we presume such events are common.

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Overconfidence

The tendency to be more confident than correct - to overestimate the accuracy of one's beliefs and judgements.

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Framing

The way an issue is posed; how an issue is framed can significantly affect decisions and judgements.

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Belief Bias

The tendency for one's pre-existing beliefs to distort logical reasoning, sometimes by making invalid conclusions seem valid, or making valid conclusions seem invalid.

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Belief Perseverance

Clinging to one's initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited.o

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Babbling Stage

Beginning at 4 months, the stage of speech development in which the infant spontaneously utters various sounds at first unrelated to household language.

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One Word Stage

The stage in speech development, from age 1-2, during which a child speaks mostly in single words.

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Two Word Stage

Beginning at age 2, the two word stage is the stage of speech development in which a child mostly speaks two word statements.

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Telegraphic Stage

Early speech stage in which a child speaks like a telegram, using mostly nouns and verbs and omitting auxiliary words. (Example: Go car.)

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Linguistic Determinism

Whorf's hypothesis that language determines the way we think.

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Language

Our spoken, written, or signed words and the ways we combine them to communicate meaning.

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Phoneme

In language, the smallest distinctive sound unit.

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Morpheme

The smallest unit that carries meaning. It may be a word or a part of a word.

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Grammar

A system of rules that enables us to communicate with and understand others.

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Semantics

The set of rules by which we derive meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences in a given language; also, the study of meaning.

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Syntax

The rules for combining words into grammatically sensible sentences in a given language.

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Noam Chomsky

A major figure in the study of language development.