Flashcards in construction 16 Deck (106):
: A thin wire wrapped around the fiber and coaxial cables to secure them to the strand.
A steel support wire to which the coaxial and fiber optic cables are lashed in aerial installations.
Ultimate Breaking Strength (lb) 3900
1/4 inch strand
Ultimate Breaking Strength (lb) 6900
3/8 inch strand
Attach the lashing wire to the clamp as follows:
Wrap the lashing wire twice around the strand in the same direction as the twist on the strand.
Pass the lashing wire between the washers of the lashing wire clamp without overlapping the wire.
Wrap the wire around the clamp to the post on the opposite side of the clamp and wrap it twice around the post and insert the sharp, dangerous end of the lashing wire into the opening between the two halves of the clamp for technician safety.
A loop intentionally formed in the cable to compensate for expansion and contraction caused by temperature changes.
used to counteract the horizontal component of forces placed on poles by the strand and cable.
guy and anchor
Strand that connects the pole line hardware to the anchor
Buried metal device used to transfer force from the pole to the ground.
A guy wire is
strand that connects the pole line hardware, particularly the guy attachment hardware, to the anchor.
A guy wire guard is
a yellow plastic cover used to protect the guy wire and to make it more visible.
Down guy,Head guy,Terminal guy,Side guy,Pole-to-Stub Guy,Pole-to-Pole Guy,Sidewalk guy,Storm guy
Down guy is the general name for the guy wire and associated hardware on all guys. These guys consist of a length of strand (being strand, the rated breaking strength of the guy is the same as that for the strand) that is attached to pole-line hardware and to an anchor. The anchor is used to transfer the horizontal component of force to the ground via the guy wire. Down guys may also be referred to as anchor guys or simply guys.
A head guy may be used as a terminal guy, or two guys can be used in a location where the strand changes direction. Head guys are also referred to as line guys.
Terminal guys are used at the end of pole lines.
Side guys may be used when the strand changes direction. The side guy is in line with the angle that bisects the strand routing. Careful engineering analysis is done to ensure that the side guy does not cause excessive forces to be placed on the guy, anchor, and associated hardware.
Pole-to-stub guys are used to establish clearance for the guys. Pole-to-stub guys are attached to a stub pole.
A pole-to-pole guy utilizes an in-line pole as an anchor. The pole-to-pole guy may also be called a span guy or an overhead guy. The attachment to the pole being used as an anchor should not be greater than eight feet from the base of the anchor pole.
Sidewalk guys use a horizontal strut to provide overhead clearance when a head guy causes a hazard to traffic beneath the guy. Sidewalk guys are useful when the placement of an anchor is critical. The horizontal strut causes additional forces to be placed on the pole where the strut contacts the pole. The strut, typically a 2 ½ inch galvanized steel pipe, is placed eight feet from the ground beneath the framing hardware.
Storm guys are used when a straight pole line is subjected to extreme sideward forces, typically in the form of wind. There may be two storm guys on a pole, both at a ninety-degree orientation to the pole line. A storm guy may also be referred to as a line guy.
Anchors are used to
transfer the horizontal stresses from the pole to the ground
Screw anchors are directly torqued into the ground with a power anchor driver (anchor cranker), although screw anchors can be installed manually. Minimal ground disturbance results with screw anchors.
Never-creep anchors are designed for use in soft soil where screw anchors are less effective. The never-creep anchor is installed by driving the never-creep anchor rod to intersect a perpendicular borehole used for the placement of the plate of the never-creep anchor. The borehole is then refilled and compacted. They are also called plate-type anchors.
Rock anchors are designed to expand in holes bored in rock or concrete. Rock anchors are also called concrete anchors.
Anchor rods connect the anchor and the guy wire. Anchor rods are also called guy rods.
What happens when connectorization is not done properly?
Signal quality and the overall life of the network can be adversely affected.
The cable can be damaged during the splicing process, and the equipment being connected can be damaged as well.
It can lead to poor picture and signal quality, repeat trouble calls, leakage, and outages.
The device, usually a screw, used to connect the coaxial cable’s center conductor to an active or passive device.
Coring and stripping tools are used to
prepare the coaxial cable for splicing. They vary, depending on the manufacturer and the type of cable being spliced.
used to remove the outer jacket of a typical underground cable
A stripping tool is
A coring tool may remove the jacket, but primarily removes
the outer sheath and dielectric within the cable
Never cut a piece of cable until you verify
the type, size, voltage and connectors that may be needed for restoration.
These tools are specifically designed to cut coaxial cables.
Cable “banana” cutters
These are wire cutters with a diagonal head used to cut different sizes of wire.
The side cutting pliers nines are used to cut various gauges of wire and to hold or grip items while working. They are a combination of 9-inch pliers and wire cutters.
Side cutting pliers or “nines”
Also known as a tubing cutter, it was originally used by plumbers for cutting copper tubing
This cleaner is made with sharp plastic blades that will not damage the center conductor.
Center conductor cleaner
The type of connector most commonly used to attach a coaxial cable to active and passive HFC devices (taps, couplers, power inserters, amplifiers) is called a
The coaxial cable is fed directly through the body of the connector and the cable’s center conductor is inserted directly into the seizure mechanism.
used to connect two pieces of the same size coaxial cable together
Straight splice connectors
used to connect two devices together.
used to connect two devices together.
are used whenever it is necessary to change the direction of the coaxial cable leaving the connected devices.
90° and 180° adapters
An extension fitting is used:
Where the cable doesn’t quite reach the device (i. e., an amplifier is replaced with a newer version that is smaller).
To extend distances (when used with other connectors).
To extend the reach of the cable in a pedestal.
This allows two different sizes of coaxial cable to be connected together.
used to convert a coaxial cable to an “F” series interface
used to install a female F connector to the threaded port of an active or passive device
75 Ohm devices used to terminate RF signals
steps to Core the dielectric.
1)Be very careful not to cut as far down as the center conductor.
2)Remove the exposed dielectric by first making a ring cut at the end of the sheath where the cut was made with the pipe cutter.
3)Use your knife to cut away the remaining dielectric. Start at the tip of the cable and cut toward the sheath.
4)Using the correct coring tool, slide the tool onto the end of the cable.
5)Line up the center conductor with the hole in the coring tool.
6)Turn the tool while gently applying pressure.
Continue turning the coring tool until it reaches its built-in stopping point.
Always wear safety glasses when splicing cable. Failure to do so could result in
permanent eye damage.
To wrap a thin wire around the cable in order to secure it to the strand.
This device is selectively placed at pole hardware locations to prevent dangerous strand sag (such as hanging over traffic lanes, etc.) while strand is being installed.
Wire raising tool
Used in conjunction with a lay-up stick to lift cable blocks and strand.
are used to prevent unwanted pay-off of strand from the cable trailer or reel stand.
Traveling grounds are portable bonding connections installed at the location where the strand is spooled from the cable trailer or reel stand.
Stationary Reel Method
This method is commonly called the back-pull method.
The trailer should be at a minimal distance________
from the pole at which the strand first contacts the pole line hardware.
two times the hardware attachment height
Installation of pole hardware allowing for hanging of strand.
Strand splices should be
placed outside the pole framing hardware, but within 18 to 24 inches of the pole.
Traveling grounds should always be used
when placing the strand by the stationary reel method.
Uses a mechanical wrenching action to bend expansion loops into coaxial cable
is used to measure the pulling tension applied to cables.
Breakaway swivels allow
cables that are being pulled to swivel and are used to ensure that the cables are not over-tensioned during pulling
Multiple cable block
Used to support multiple cables in independent rollers. Multiple cable blocks make a cable positioner unnecessary when lashing multiple cables.
Single roller block
Typically used to support a single cable prior to lashing and may be used when cables are lashed directly to the strand or in overlash applications.
Pole mount cable block
Used to install self-support cable and is attached to the pole hardware to support the cable as it is pulled out.
Used to support a single cable prior to lashing.
90° corner block
This device is used to route cables through inside or outside corners up to 90°. It minimizes drag on the cable in corners and ensures that the minimum bend radius of the cable, as specified by the manufacturer, is not exceeded. Requires specialized mounting hardware, depending on the specific use of the equipment.
45° corner block
Used to route cables through inside or outside corners up to 45°. It minimizes drag on the cable in corners and ensures that the minimum bend radius of the cable is not exceeded. These corner blocks may be used as a set-up chute to guide cables from the cable trailer or a reel stand. They require specialized mounting hardware, depending on the specific use of the equipment.
A set-up chute is used to guide cables from the cable trailer or reel stand to the strand. This equipment requires specialized mounting hardware, depending on its specific use.
This bracket is used to support 45° and 90° corner blocks or set-up chutes at mid-span.
A cable lasher is used to lash cable directly to installed strand or cable bundles. Lashers are somewhat specific to cable and strand size—improper lasher size or adjustment may damage cables.
Multiple cable puller
This device allows multiple cables to be pulled into place when lashing cables directly to strand. It’s equipped with a strand brake to prevent sagging of cables as the pulling tension is released. It also allows pulled cables to independently swivel.
Overlash cable puller
Allows multiple cables to be pulled into place in overlash applications. Allows pulled cables to independently swivel.
Cable block pusher
This device is used to push equipment ahead of a pulled lasher. A cable block pusher is also known as a shotgun or a shuttle.
Cable positioner (or magic box)
A cable positioner is pushed in front of a lasher by a cable block pusher to uniformly position multiple cables that are being lashed.
A cable guide is used to guide the cable into the lasher in drive-off applications. It can be used for new strand or overlash applications. The guide may be pushed in front of the lasher with a cable block pusher, pulled in front of the lasher, or physically attached to the lasher, depending on the cable guide type.
A fiberglass stick used to lift cable blocks and cables into place, utilizing the appropriate type of lay-up stick heads.
Cable lifter (or lay-up stick head)
A cable lifter is used in conjunction with a lay-up stick to lift cables into place. The lifter ensures that the cables being lifted are not damaged, by exceeding minimum bend radii.
Cable block lifter
This tool is used in conjunction with a lay-up stick to place assorted cable blocks mid-span.
The two methods of cable placement are the same as the strand
stationary reel (or back-pull) and moving reel (or drive-off) method.
The points to be considered during cable installation are:
Aerial pole clearance, Pulling Tension, Expansion loops,
Cables are pulled into place from the reel by applying force to the end of the cable from the top of the reel
Deformations of the conductor geometry cause
an impedance change in the coaxial cable and also make it difficult to install connectors.
The resistance of a circuit (cable, passive devices are examples) to alternating current.
Breakaway swivels should be
placed on each cable to ensure that the maximum allowable tension for that cable is not exceeded
Dynamometers are used to measure the dynamic tension in the cable.
Tail loading is
the tension in the cable caused by the mass of cable on the reel and reel brakes.
Tail loading is controlled by two methods.
It can be minimized by using minimal braking during the pay-off of the cable from the reel.
At times, no braking is preferred.
The manufacturer’s specified minimum bending radius is the static (unloaded) bending radius of the cable. This is the minimum radius to which the cable can be bent without electrically or mechanically degrading the performance of the cable.
The mechanical bender must remain in position until
in position until the lasher is transferred and the next span of cable is lashed 50 feet, or 1/3 the distance to the next pole, whichever is greater.
Expansion loops made with more than one cable in a cable bundle should
not be banded together inside the loop
An expansion loop should be formed
on the output side of every pole for all sizes of coaxial cable being used
The loop location is dictated by the direction
of the feeder cable
When the loop location is dictated by the signal flow direction of the feeder cable.
If a span is 250 feet or longer
place two expansion loops on each pole. One loop is placed on the input side and one is placed on the output side of the pole.
Double dead ended:
A double dead end is when two perpendicular strands end at the same pole.
cable bundle size they accommodate:S
cable bundle size they accommodate:H
cable bundle size they accommodate:C
cable bundle size they accommodate:D
cable bundle size they accommodate:J
cable bundle size they accommodate:K
The cable should pay-off the
top of the cable reel
The end(s) of the cable left at the pole for splicing.
A stationary motor-driven or hand-powered machine used for hoisting or hauling, having a drum around which is wound a rope or chain attached to the load being moved.