Exam 1; Autonomic Drugs Flashcards Preview

AU14 Pharmacology > Exam 1; Autonomic Drugs > Flashcards

Flashcards in Exam 1; Autonomic Drugs Deck (68):
1

This nervous system has short preganglia and long postganglia which allow the activation of other systems

sympathetic

2

This nervous system originates in the CNS or sacral spinal roots and has long preganglionic and short postganglionic

parasympathetics

3

All preganglionic neurons use this as a neurotransmitter

ACh

4

sympathetic postganglionic neurons use this a a neurotransmitter

NE

5

parasympathetic postganglionic neuros use this as a neurotransmitter

ACh

6

What two effects does the sympathetic system have on the eye

far focus
contraction of radial muscle = pupil enlargement "mydnasis"

7

What three effects does the parasympathetic system have on the eye

contracts the circular sphincter for pupil constriction (myosis)
contraction of cilliary muscle for accommodation; close focus
increased tear production

8

What three effects does the sympathetic system have on the digestive system

decreased secretions
decreased gastric motility
decreased sphincter tone

9

What three effects does the parasympathetic system have on the digestive system

increased salivary and digestive secretions
increased motility
increased sphincter tone

10

What two effects does the sympathetic nervous system have on the heart

increased heart rate
increased contractile force

11

What two effects does the parasympathetic system have on the heart

decreased rate
decreased force of contraction

12

What two effects does the sympathetic nervous system have on the blood vessels

muscle vessels relax
skin and gut vessels contract

13

What effect does the parasympathetic system have on the blood vessels

relaxes most blood vessels

14

What effect does the sympathetic system have on the lung

relaxation of bronchial smooth muscle

15

What effect does the parasympathetic system have on the lungs

constricts bronchial smooth muscle

16

What two effects does the sympathetic system have on the reproductive system

relaxation of the bladder
ejaculation

17

What two effects does the parasympathetic system have on the reproductive system

contraction of the bladder
erection

18

What effect does the sympathetic system have on metabolism

increase in blood glucose

19

What type of receptor does ACh bind to

cholinergic

20

This type of neurotransmitter receptor activation leads to altered ion channels

nictonic receptors

21

This type of neurotransmitter receptor activation leads to altered metabolism

muscarinic

22

Niconitic receptors are used by what portions of the autonomic nervous system

preganglionic of both

23

Muscarinic receptors are used by what portions of the autonomic nervous system

postganglionic parasympathetic

24

Adrenergic receptors are used by what portions of the autonomic nervous system

postganglionic sympathetic

25

These act on ACh receptors

cholinergic agents

26

What is the effect of cholinergic agents

increase in parasympathetic activity
myosis, increased GI motility, increased sweat/tears/saliva, constriction of bronchial SM, decrease in HR and contraction

27

What is the mechanism of direct acting cholinergic agonists

bind and cause activation

28

These three drugs are muscarinic agonists

muscarine
pilocarpine
bethanechol

29

These two drugs are nicotinic agonists

nicotine
succinylcholine

30

This is a partial nicotinic agonist; binds, but does not fully activate; ACh cannot bind

varenicline

31

These two drugs are agonists that act at both nicotinic and muscarinic receptors

acetylcholine
carbachol

32

What is the mechanism behind indirect-active cholinergic agonists

all agents which inhibit AChE; prevents the breakdown of ACh

33

These indirect-active cholinergic agonists have an effect that lasts several hours

physostigmine
neostigmine
demecarium

34

This is an indirect-active cholinergic agonists which is reversible and has a short duration of action

edrophonium

35

This is an indirect-active cholinergic agonists which phosphorylates AChE and may inhibit for hundreds of hours

echothiophate

36

indirect-active cholinergic agonists may also affect cholinoreceptors of the muscles; need for these three thigns

Glaucoma
Mysathenia gravis
Sjogren's syndrome

37

What two indirect-active cholinergic agonists are used to treat Azheimer's

donepezil
tacrine

38

This indirect-active cholinergic agonist, if given early, can reduce any permanent damage caused by organophosphate AChE inhibitors

pralidoxime

39

What are two non-medical indirect-active cholinergic agonists which are irreversible AChE inhibitors

malathion (insecticide)
sarin (nerve gas)

40

What are the toxicities of cholinergic agonists

Diarrhea
Urination
Miosis
Bradycardia (slow HR)
Broncoconstriction
Excitation (CNS); paralysis, ataxia, seizures, amnesia
Lacrimation
Sweating

41

This blocking agent reversibly blocks the muscarinic receptor

cholinoceptor

42

*This antimuscarinic agent lasts 7-10 days

atropine

43

This antimuscarinic agent lasts 3-7 days

scopolamine

44

These four drugs have short term effects; as in dilating the pupil

homatropine
cyclopentolate
tropicamide
ipratropium

45

Following an overdose of antimuscarinic agents, what are some minor side effects (8)

pupil size increases
inhibits ciliary muscle (virtually blind)
decreased tear production
bronchodilation
dry mouth
decreased gastric motility and secretions
urinary retention
decreased sweating

46

What are the two major side effects follow an overdose of antimuscarinic agents

increased HR
CNS effects including psychosis

47

What are the four clinical uses of antimuscarinic agents

used to treat urinary incotinence
motion sickness
GI hyperactivity
asthma

48

This depolarizing anti nicotinic blocker has a long duration of action; it initially activated the receptor, eventually there is muscle hyper polarization which leads to paralysis

succinylcholine

49

These are three non-depolarizing antinictonic skeletal muscle ACh receptor blockers; all derived from curare

pancuronium
atracurium
rocurorium (most common)

50

This reverses the blockade by rocuronium by binding it directly

sugammadex

51

This muscle paralytic agent is an inhibitor of ACh releaseq

botulinum toxin type A

52

Botox is used cosmetically but it was originally developed to treat what three conditions

cerebral palsy
tics
strabissmus and mystaganus (eye muscle issues)

53

This sympathetic adrenoreceptor subtype can contract vascular smooth muscle; heart rate increases

α1

54

This sympathetic adrenoreceptor subtype can act on presynaptic nerve terminals in CNS

α2

55

This sympathetic adrenoreceptor subtype increases heart rate and contraction force

β1

56

This sympathetic adrenoreceptor subtype causes relaxation and vascular smooth muscle

β2

57

*This adrenergic agonist acts on all adrenergic receptors (α and β) and it stimulates the receptor

epinephrine

58

These three adrenergic agonists activate α1 receptors; they decease congestion

phenylephrine
tetrahydrozoline
naphazoline

59

These two adrenergic agonists activate α2 receptors; they decrease sympathetic outflow from the CNS; used to treat hypertension and other analogs treat glaucoma

clonidine
α methyl norepinephrine

60

These adrenergic agonist activate β1 receptors

norepinephrine
dobutamine

61

These four adrenergic agonists activate β2 receptors; cause bronchodilation

metalproternol
terbutaline
fenoterol
albuterol
(the -nols and -rols)

62

These are four indirect acting amine, which induce the release of NE from nerve terminals; doesn't directly affect the receptors

amphetamine, methamphetamine
tyramine
phenylpropanolamine
pseudoephedrine

63

These two adrenergic antagonists are α1 receptor blockers

prazosin
phenoybenzamine

64

This α1 receptor blocker drug is used as an anti-hypertensive and also used to treat benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH)

prazosin

65

This is an adrenergic antagonist that blocks α1 and α2 receptors

phentolamine

66

This is an adrenergic antagonists that blocks α2 receptors

tolazoline

67

These are five adrenergic antagonists that block β1 receptors; decrease heart rate

metoprolol
acebutolol
alprenolol
atenolol
esmolol
( the -olols)

68

These are five adrenergic antagonists that block both β1 and β2 receptors

propanolol
timolol
levobunolol
carteolol
metipranolol