Exam 2; CNS Stimulants and Marijuana Flashcards Preview

AU14 Pharmacology > Exam 2; CNS Stimulants and Marijuana > Flashcards

Flashcards in Exam 2; CNS Stimulants and Marijuana Deck (47):
1

What are the three compounds in coffee, tea, and/or cocoa

caffeine
theophylline (tea)
theobromine (cocoa)

2

What is the average intake of methylxanthanes in the US

200mg/person/day
roughly 3 cups of coffee

3

What are the four CNS stimulant symptoms of methylxanthanes

increased mood
decreased fatigue
higher work capacity
increased respiration

4

What is the effect that methylxanthanes hav on the cardiovascular system

increased heart rate

5

What is the effect that methylxanthanes have on smooth muscles

relaxation; especially bronchial smooth muscle

6

What is the effect that methylxanthanes have on the kidneys

weak diuretic

7

What is the effect that methylxanthanes have on the striated muscle

increased contraction strength

8

What is the mechanism behind methylxanthanes

increases cAMP by inhibiting cAMP phosphodiesterases

9

What are the toxic effects of methylxanthanes on the CNS

nervousness
insomnia
hand tremors
at very high doses = seizures

10

What toxic effect can methylxanthanes have on the heart

cardiac arrthymias

11

What is the therapeutic index of methylxanthanes

relatively safe ~ 100

12

What are the effects of tolerance/chronic poisoning of methylxanthanes

insomnia
tachycardia
GI upset

13

What are the three effects of absentation//withdrawal of methylxanthanes

headache
lethargy
irritability

14

What is the half life of cocaine

1 hour; very short

15

Is cocaine an acid or base?

weak base;
the basic component is more readily absorbed

16

What are the four symptoms cocaine has on the CNS

increased mood
increased energy
decreased appetite
decreased need for sleep

17

What is the mechanism behind cocaine in the CNS

prevents the re-uptake of NE, SHT, and DA in the CNS

18

What two bodily effects does cocaine have

increases blood pressure; vasoconstriction (never give with epinephrine)
increases body temperature

19

Where is cocaine used as a clinical anesthetic

local anesthesia in the eye

20

What are six toxic symptoms of cocaine in the CNS

anxiety
paranoia
insomnia
general nervousness
psychoses; hallucinations and seizures

21

cocaine can cause vasoconstriction of local tissues which can lead to what

tissue anoxia and death

22

People who use cocaine on a regular basis have this symptom

urticarial; itching

23

Tolerance of cocaine develops to what effect

euphoric effect

24

cocaine leads to a decrease in CNS neurotransmitters which leads to what

prevents the re-uptake; leading to exhaustion

25

cocaine can cause this to occur involving the cardiovascular system which is seen in ODs

cardiac arrhthymias

26

cocaine can cause a decreased blood flow to where

the uterus; leading to a decreased birth weight

27

What is the mechanism behind amphetamines

increased release of DA and NE in the CNS
indirect acting amine, causing the release of nuerotransmitters

28

What is the half life of amphetamines

10 hours or so; relatively slow onset

29

What is one of the main symptoms of amphetamines

"meth mouth"
bruxism

30

What are two clinical uses of amphetamines

narcolepsy
ADD: ritalin

31

What are four other CNS stimulants

modafinil
armodafinil
dexmethyphenidate
methylphenite

32

What is the main component of Cannabinoids

tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)

33

What is the mechanism behind THC

binds to the cannabinoid receptor; endogenous THC = anandamide

34

What are some symptoms of Cannabinoids

euphoria
non-CNS depressant
anti-emetic effects
decreases intra-ocular pressure
anti-convulsant
stimulates appetite
some analgesic or anti-nocicpetivve

35

What is the effect of Cannabinoids on the smooth muscle

bronchodilation
dilates conjunctival blood vessels = red eye

36

What is the effect of Cannabinoids on the mouth

anticholinergic effects; dry mouth

37

What is the therapeutic index of Cannabinoids

around 1000; relatively impossible to kill yourself solely by using this drug

38

How does Cannabinoids effect the lungs

chronic smokers will have the same lung problems as tobacco smokers

39

True or False
THC cannot pass the placenta

False; it can

40

What are two clinical uses of THC

anti-emetic
appetite stimulant effect

41

What are two Cannabinoid based drugs

dronabinol
nabilone; nausea treatment

42

This is a high addictive, cheap, legal, and high available drug that is portable and doesn't impair facilities

nicotine

43

What is the mechanism behind nicotine

presynaptic nicotinic cholinergic receptor
increase slight DA release

44

What are the two complex CNS side effects of nicotine

mild sedative
decreases appetite

45

How much nicotine is in the average cigarette

15mg; goes instantly to the CNS

46

What are four major symptoms of withdrawal from nicotine

depression
anxiety
suicidal
aggressive

47

This is a partial nicotinic agonist that binds ad activates the nicotinic receptor, blocking further stimulation

varenicline