Exam 2; Narcotic Analgesics (Opiates) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam 2; Narcotic Analgesics (Opiates) Deck (33):
1

These are the very best analgesics which were drastically changed with the invention of the hypodermic syringe

opiates

2

What is the analgesic effect of opioids on the CNS

decrease the perception of pain and the response to the pain
some sedation

3

How do opioids affect mood

they elevate mood; even induce euphoria

4

opioids have a direct effect on the chemoreceptor trigger zone in the CNS causing what

nausea

5

opioids have an effect on the brain respiration center which can lead to what

decreased respiration; typically dying of an OD is in conjunction with ethanol and they "just forget to breathe"

6

opioids stimulate the nucleus of the oculomotor nerve cause what

pupil constriction; "pin-point-pupils"
hyperthermia

7

What is the effects of opioids on the GI system

they cause random contraction leading to constipation

8

What are three effects of opioids

vasodilation
orthostatic hypotension
increased CSF pressure
increased release of histamine; bronchconstriction and itching

9

All of the opioids can pass what

the placenta
baby will be born with high levels and will go through withdrawal

10

opioids act on what

specific opioid receptors

11

opioids look a lot like what three things

endogenous opiate-like peptides
enkephalines
endorphins
dynorphins

12

What is the most significant opioid receptor

μ; mu

13

What are five symptoms of opioids on the μ receptor

pain
euphoria
cough
respiration depression
gut motility

14

The activation of opioid receptors leads to a decrease in this

cAMP

15

This is related both to the pleasure of the addictive experience and the dear of the consequence of withdrawal

addiction

16

This is when you need more of something to satisfy your need; continuously increase the dose to get the desired effect

tolerance

17

This is the adaptation to the presence of the drug therefore the effects of stopping the drug are the opposite of the drug itself

withdrawal

18

What are four symptoms of opioid withdrawal

skin; severe vasoconstriction "cold turkey"
GI; extremely active, cramping, diarrhea, nausea

19

What are the two treatment for opioid withdrawal

"cold turkey" no treatment
ultra-rapid withdrawal; ovoid blocker under general anesthesia

20

This is a natural analog opiate agonist usually given parentally because it undergoes first pass metabolism

morphine

21

This is a natural analog opiate partial agonist with low anti-nociceptive effects; great anti-tussive effect

codeine

22

This is a semisynthetic opiate agonist which is 5x more potent than morphine

heroin

23

This is a semisynthetic opiate agonist which is 10x more potent than morphine

hydromorphone

24

This is a semisynthetic opiate agonist that is 0.5% less potent than morphine and is available in oral form

oxycodone

25

This is a synthetic opiate agonist that is 80-100x more potent that morphine

fentanyl

26

What are five synthetic opiate agonists

sufentanil (500-600x more potent than morphine)
alfentanil
remifentanil
oxymorphone
levorphanol

27

This synthetic opiate agonist is 0.5 less potent than morphine but there is no pupil constriction

meperidine

28

This synthetic opiate agonist is orally effective due to giving in it a liquid form that is harder to abuse

methadone

29

These are three opiate receptor blockers used in emergencies

naloxene
naltrexone
methyltrexone

30

These are two agents that work as a combination of opiate activity and SSRIs

tramadol
tapentadol

31

When should opiates be used

in the control of PAIN in cancer, burn patines, trauma, allowing them to lead normal lives
addiction is rare in patients that need the pain control to function

32

Opiates analogs without CNS effects can be used to treat what

diarrhea and cough

33

What are the four things that opiates should never be used for

undiagnosed pain
head injury; increase intracranial pressure
convulsive disorder; may increase seizures
respiratory difficulties