Exam 2; Parkinson's Flashcards Preview

AU14 Pharmacology > Exam 2; Parkinson's > Flashcards

Flashcards in Exam 2; Parkinson's Deck (33):
1

What causes Parkinsons

dopamine deficiency in the CNS

2

What are five major symptoms of Parkinson's

tremor in the hand and facial muscles
muscle rigidity
bradykinesia
akinesia
loss of cognitive function

3

What will result in the death of someone with Parkinson's

lack of swallowing; aspiration pneumonia
pulmonary embolism due to loss of movement

4

DOPA (dihydroxyphenylalanine) is converted to DA is via what enzyme

DOPA decarboxylase

5

The enzyme that converts DA to NE is what

dopamine hydroxylase

6

What are DOPA and DA metabolized by

MAO
COMT

7

These are selective inhibitors of MAO; found only in the CNS; slowing the progression of the symptoms of Parkinson's

selegiline
rasagiline

8

What is selegiline metabolized to in the body

methamphetamine
rasagiline is not metabolized to this

9

This is a pro-drug precursor to dopamine that is used because dopamine itself cannot penetrate the blood-brain barrier and enter the CNS

L-DOPA (levoDOPA)

10

Why is DOPA not just given as a drug to treat Parkinson's

DOPA is metabolized in the gut by DOPA decarboxylase to DA, therefore DOPA is not getting into the CNS

11

DOPA is given along with what other thing and why

DOPA decarboxylase
this allows the DOPA to survive long enough to get into the CNS, allowing DOPA to be converted to dopamine and inducing the effect

12

DOPA plus DOPA decarboxylase is known as what drug

carbi-DOPA

13

What are the six side effects of carbi-DOPA

nausea
postural hypotension
hallucinations
confusion
dyskinesias (uncontrolled movements)
worsens closed angle glaucoma

14

For how long is carbi-DOPA effective for

5 years; due to the loss of endogenous DA

15

What will the sudden discontinuation of L-DOPA plus carbidopa result in

neuroeptic malignant syndrome
muscle rigidity and high fever

16

What are two COMT inhibitors

tolcapone
entacapone

17

True or False
COMT inhibitors are more significant than MAO

False; they are not, they do enhance the duration of action of DA

18

What are COMT inhibitors used with

L-DOPA

19

These act directly on the DA receptors, but are not as effective as L-DOPA

dopamine agonisits

20

This stimulated dopamine-2 receptors

bromocryptine

21

What are three side effects of bromocryptine

nausea
hallucinations
hypotension

22

These two drugs are DA agonsits that have been used to treat RLS

pramipexole
ropinirole

23

This is a DA agonist in patch form

rotgotine

24

This DA agonist is given by injection and causes severe nausea

apomorphine

25

What are the four symptoms of DA agonists

nausea
hypotension
confusion
sudden sleep syndrome

26

DA agonists can have this symptom similar to someone with bi-polar disorder

lack of impulse control; may uncharacteristically go out and buy stuff, compulsive gambling, hypersexuality

27

These decrease the imbalance between DA and ACh that occurs during Parkinson's

anticholinergics
Parkinson's = deficiency in dopamine = activated cholinergic receptors

28

What are the three anticholinergics used to treat Parkinson's

trihexyphenidyl
benztropine
amantadine

29

This anticholinergic is a muscarinic blocker

benzotropine

30

What are four symptoms of benzotropine

anti-muscarinic effects; (mad as a hatter, etc.)
dry mouth
urinary retention
blurred vision
memory loss and hallucinations

31

This anticholinergic is also used as an anti-viral; it increases the release of stored dopamine from nerve endings

amantadine

32

What are two side effects of amantadine

insomnia
restlessness

33

What are three alternate treatments for Parkinson's

surgery
deep brain stimulation
tissue/stem cell transplantation