Exam 4; Asthma Flashcards Preview

AU14 Pharmacology > Exam 4; Asthma > Flashcards

Flashcards in Exam 4; Asthma Deck (32):
1

What is the cycle that results from prolonged irritation of the normal airway pathway

the immune system becomes involved realizing immune mediators from cells resulting in bronchoconstriction and edema, those cells migrate to the lungs because of this result in airway inflammation which then results in immune mediators, and vice versa

2

Wha are the two non-pharmacologic treatments of asthma

education
change in environment

3

These are the initial drugs of choice for short term relief of asthmatic symptoms

bronchodilators

4

What is the mechanism behind β2 receptor agonist bronchodilators

increases cAMP and decreases inflammatory response

5

This β2 receptor agonist is non specific and activated all adrenergic receptors

epinephrine

6

What is the result of epinephrine on β1 and  ɑ1

β1 = increase in HR
ɑ1 = vasoconstriction

7

This β2 receptor agonist is more selective for β2

isoproterenol

8

What is the half life of selective β2 agonists

6 hours

9

What is different about the method of absorption regarding the selective β2 agonists and the more non-selective β2 agonists

the selective β2 agonists can be inhaled, especially good since you want it affecting the lungs

10

Any agent that acts by activating a receptor can cause what

down regulation of receptors and loss of effect

11

What are the 5 relatively selective β2 agonists

albuterol
pubuterol
bitolerol
levabuterol
terbutaline
"buterol's" essentially

12

What are the four longer lasting β2 agonists (not effective for rapid release)

formoterol
arformoterol
salmeterol
indicaterol
"terol's"

13

What are the three major side effects of the β agonists

tremors
techycardia
palpations of the heart due ti β1 effects

14

What class of drugs is mainly used for treating COPD

cholinergic blockres; atropine analogs

15

What are the two drugs to treat COPD

Ipratropium
tiotropium

16

What condition should you watch for when treating someone with COPD

patients with urinary retention

17

What is a symptom of the cholinergic blockers

dry mouth

18

What is the mechanism behind theophylline

phosphodiesterase inhibitor, inhibiting cAMP PDE which elevated cellular cAMP

19

What is theophylline used for

chronic asthma; it is a methylxanthine

20

What are the three main symptoms of theophylline

cardiac stimulation; arrthymias
CNS stimulation; tremors, insomnia, seizures
GI upset

21

True or False
The anti-inflammatory agents are NOT bronchodilators

True

22

What are the two mast cell inhibitors

cromolyn sodium
nedocromil

23

What is the mechanism behind cromolyn sodium and nedocromil

they inhibit the treats of mediators from immune cells by inhibiting Cl channels and decreasing Ca uptake

24

What class of drugs are the drug of choice for asthma prophylaxis, most given by inhalation

glucocorticoids

25

What are the seven glucocorticoids

beclomethasone
budesonide
fluticasone
mometasone
ciclesonide
prednisone
dexamethasone
"-son or -sone"

26

What is the mechanism behind the glucocorticoids

binds to intracellular receptors which alter DNA transcription

27

glucocorticoids increase this, which inhibits the synthesis of phospholipase 2

lipocortin

28

What are the side effects of glucocorticoids

since they are inhibitors of the immune response;
infections
dysphonia (trouble speaking)
systemic effects

29

This drug blocks the IgE receptors; blocking stimulation

omalizumab

30

This drug is a leukotriene synthesis inhibitor

zileuton

31

What is the mechanism behind zileuton

enzyme inhibitor
inhibits the enzyme 5-lipoxygenase which is necessary for the synthesis of leukotrienes

32

What are the two leukotriene receptor blockers

zarfirlukast
montelukast