Exam 2; Ethanol and Methanol Flashcards Preview

AU14 Pharmacology > Exam 2; Ethanol and Methanol > Flashcards

Flashcards in Exam 2; Ethanol and Methanol Deck (46):
1

What are the three medical uses of ethanol

antiseptic (high conc.)
analgesic
anesthetic (weak)

2

What is it about the structure of ethanol that allows it to get into essentially all the cells

it is lipid and water soluble
CH3-CH2-OH

3

What is the main action of ethanol on most cells

depressant

4

This excitatory CNS neurotransmitter is inhibited by ethanol

glutamine

5

This inhibitory CNS neurotransmitter is activated by ethanol

GABA

6

Ethanol may activate these pathways in the "pleasure center"

DA pathways

7

Ethanol inhibits this higher function

cortisol

8

What are some basic symptoms of ethanol consumption

lack of judgment
decreased social inhibitions
slow reaction time
decrease visual activity
motor incoordination
impairs medially function; nausea, loss of balance, etc.
inhibits REM sleep

9

How does ethanol effect the cardiovascular system

skin vasodilation
due to the inhibition of reflex vasoconstriction

10

How does ethanol effect the GI tract at low concentrations

increased gastrin secretion and HCl secretion

11

How does ethanol effect the GI tract at high concentrations

gastric inhibition

12

How does ethanol effect the liver

direct toxic effects
interacts with other liver toxins
decreased testosterone synthesis and metabolism

13

Chronic use of ethanol can cause the liver to become what

fatty liver

14

How does ethanol effect the kidney

weak diuretic inhibiting ADH secretion
can decrease uric acid secretion causing gout

15

In which part of the body is ethanol rapidly absorbed

small intestine

16

In which part of the body is ethanol slightly absorbed

stomach

17

What are three factors that delay stomach emptying lowering the rate of absorption

exercise
food
anti-cholinergic agents

18

Do patients with gastectomies have a more delayed or rapid alcohol absorption

more rapid

19

This factor may increase stomach emptying, resulting in a more rapid alcohol absorption

carbonation

20

What is the distribution of ethanol in the body

it rapidly equilibrates with all the tissues

21

Ethanol can pass the placenta, which can influence the baby how

newborns can undergo withdrawal
may be damaged; fetal alcohol syndrome

22

In which organ is ethanol mainly metabolized

liver

23

What is the metabolism equation for ethanol

ethanol --- alcohol dehydrogenase --> acetaldehyde --- acetylaldehyde dehrdrogenase --> Acetyl CoA

24

What is a side produce of ethanol metabolism

NAD+ is converted to NADH, which could lead to more lipids in the liver = fatty liver

25

What type of reaction is alcohol dehydrogenase

zero order
rate of metabolism is constant and independent of the concentration

26

What is the best measure of alcohol exposure

blood test; BAC

27

In which organ(s) is ethanol excreted

lungs (minor)
kidney

28

What is the potency of ethanol

very low
50g = 1 mol
4 drinks = 56g

29

Metabolic tolerance of ethanol increases what

alcohol dehydrogenase

30

Tissue tolerance of ethanol increases what

excitatory nurons

31

What is behavioral tolerance of ethanol

concentration on not showing the symptoms

32

What are some symptoms of withdrawal of ethanol

headace
dizziness
nausea
sweating
"hangover"

33

What are some severe symptoms of ethanol withdrawal

tremors
cramps
nausea
vomiting
seizures
DTs

34

Ethanol can interact with any drug that enters what

the CNS

35

This drug inhibits aldehyde dehydrogenase; increasing acetylaldehyde

disulfiram

36

This drug decreases the cravings for ethanol

acamprosate

37

What are five neurological and mental sequelae of ethanol addiction

brain damage
memory loss
sleep disturbances
psychoses
familial impact

38

What is the impact that ethanol has on nutrition

alcoholics have the poorest nutrition of any group in the US
getting their calories from the ethanol

39

Severe vision changes, Wenicke's encephalopathy, can be cause by this condition involving lack of nutrition from ethanol addicts

thiamine deficiencies

40

What are three effects of the ethanol addiction has on the heart

cardiomyopathy
congestive heart failure
arrthymias

41

What are two symptoms on the liver of ethanol addoction

cirrhosis
fatty liver

42

What effects does fetal alcohol syndrome have

CNS dysfunction
facial abnormalities
immune abnormalities
still and spontaneous birth

43

What is the metabolic equation of methyl alcohols

methyl alcohol --- alcohol dehydrogenase --> formaldehyde --- acetylaldehyde dehydrogenase --> formic acid

44

What toxic effects can come from methanol ingestion

metabolic acidosis
blindness; formic acid kills retinal cells

45

What is the treatment for methanol ingestion

ethanol ingestion; methanol metabolism is slower, will "weed out" the methanol

46

This is a specific inhibitor of alcohol dehydrogenase (methanol)

fomepizole