Exam 2; Anti-Anxiety and Hypnotics Flashcards Preview

AU14 Pharmacology > Exam 2; Anti-Anxiety and Hypnotics > Flashcards

Flashcards in Exam 2; Anti-Anxiety and Hypnotics Deck (44):
1

What are the definitions of anxiolytics, sedatives, and hypnotics

anxiolytics; reduce anxiety
sedatives; induce calmness without drowsiness
hypnotics; induce normal sleep

2

True or False
anxiolytics, sedatives, and hypnotics are all derived to treat diseases

False; they only treat symptoms

3

Most of these drugs target what

GABA; the major inhibitory neuron
**activating the receptor

4

These are the major anti-anxiety drugs; the "'-pam's" and "-lam's" long duration, low dose

benzodiazepines
+ chlorodiazepoxide
The beginning letters; D, A, C, C, O, L

5

These are used primarily for the treatment of insomnia; shorter duration, higher dose

flurazepam
temazapam
estrazolam
Quazepam
triazolam
F, T, E, Q, T

6

This is used in general anesthesia; given IV

midazolam

7

What is the effect of a low dose of benzodiazepines

decrease aggressive behavior and anxiety

8

What is the effect of a high dose of benzodiazepines

sedation and hypnosis
anesthesia
amnesia

9

What kind of mechanisms cause muscle relaxation, involving the benzodiazepines

central and spinal cord mechanisms; anti-spastics

10

benzodiazepines are also used for what

anti-convulsant effects

11

Where are the active benzodiazepine receptor sites on the brain

close to or on the GABA receptor of neurons
not where GABA binds directly

12

What is the activity of benzodiazepine on its receptors

it enhances the effect of GABA on its receptor; makes the receptor more sensitive to GABA

13

What are the two metabolitic paths of benzodiazepines

absorbed from the GI if given orally
metabolized in the liver; not induce P450

14

What causes tolerance of benzodiazepines

down regulation of the benzodiazepine binding sites

15

What could the result be from withdrawal of benzodiazepines

seizures
hyperactivity of the brain due to loss of inhibitory action

16

What is habituation

not the same as addiction
become psychological dependent; you THINK you need it

17

What is the therapeutic index of benzodiazepines

very high; it is virtually impossible to kill yourself with solely these; low toxicity

18

What are five side effects of benzodiazepines

drowsiness
ataxia
impaired judgment
confusion; especially in the elderly
decreased ability to learn new material

19

benzodiazepines can interact with this CNS depressant

ethanol

20

What are two visual disturbances of benzodiazepines

diplopia
nystagmus

21

This is a benzodiazepine receptor blocker; given IV due to 1st pass metabolism

flumazenil

22

These act by binding to α subunits of benzodiazepine receptor

non-benzodiazepine hypnotics

23

What are three non-benzodiazepine hypnotics

zolpidem
zaleplon
eszopiclone
the "z" drugs

24

What are four behavioral changes that can occur with non-benzodiazepine hypnotics

decreased inhibitions
bizarre behaviors
sleep driving
hallucinations

25

This is an α2 agonist non-benzodiazepine hypnotic which induces sleep, causing sedation without respirator depression

Dexmedetomidine

26

What are two symptoms of dexmedetomidine

decreased blood pressure
bradycardia

27

This is an slow onset anti-anxiety non-benzodiazepine hypnotic that is a partial serotonin agonist with no sedative or hypnotic effects

buspirone

28

These barbiturates have a 3-4 hour duration

pentobarbital
secobarbital

29

These barbiturates have a 6-8 hour duration

butaberbital
amobarbital

30

These barbiturates have a 10-16 hour duration

phenobarbital

31

what is the mechanism of action behind barbiturates

enhance the action of GABA; much more efficient that benzodiazepines

32

barbiturates act on which who places

reticular activating system
acts on sensory cortex leading to unconsciousness

33

are barbiturates more or less potent that benzodiazepines

less potent; use a higher dose

34

True or False
barbiturates are not analgesics

True

35

barbiturates act on this center; which if there is an OD of barbiturates it will lead to death due to respiratory depression

medullary respiratory center

36

What other use besides hypnosis are barbiturates used for

epilepsy

37

What are two contraindications of barbiturates

decreases respiration
TI = 10; used in suicides

38

What can barbiturates interact with regarding other drugs

ethanol
synergistic CNS depression

39

What can occur when someone who is dependent on barbiturates, stops taking them

they suppress REM sleep, so when you stop, you have a large increase in REM leading to nightmares

40

These are melatonin receptor agonists; no effect of GABAergic pathways

rameltheon
tasimeltheon

41

rameltheon and tasimeltheon help maintain what

normal circadian sleep rhythms; reduces the time to fall asleep

42

What are two side effects of rameltheon and tasimeltheon

somnolence (sleepiness)
fatigue

43

What are two long term symptoms of rameltheon and tasimeltheon

decreased testosterone synthesis
synergistic with ethanol

44

What OTC can interact with rameltheon and tasimeltheon

anti-histamines; drowsiness