Exam 4; Biogenic Amines Flashcards Preview

AU14 Pharmacology > Exam 4; Biogenic Amines > Flashcards

Flashcards in Exam 4; Biogenic Amines Deck (47):
1

What is used to convert histamine to histamine

histadine decarboxylase

2

What are four functions of histamine

growth and regeneration
neurotransmission
regulator of microcirculation
defense mechanisms

3

Histamine is released following a tissue injury, and has what four effects

inflammatory response
mechanical, thermal, chemical, or radiant injury
warning system via stimulation of sensory neurons
enhancer of the immune system

4

What is the mechanism of action of histamine

it binds to specific histamine receptor

5

What are four physiologic effects involving histamine and the vascular system

constricts larger vessels
dilate smaller vessels
cause pooling of the blood at the injury site
cause endothelial cell leakage; "wheal"

6

What is the "triple response" to injected histamine

central red spot; due to vasodilation
flare
wheal

7

What are the two neuronal physiologic effects of histamine

stimulation of sensory neuron; itching/pain
CNS effects increasing alertness

8

What are two physiologic effects of histamine regarding the smooth muscle

constricts bronchioles; bronchoconstriction
constricts metastmeal muscle; diarrhea

9

What is the physiologic effect of histamine regarding exocrine secretion

stimulates bronchial, salivary, and digestive secretions

10

What is the mechanism behind anti-histamine actions

blocks the histamine receptor

11

What are the CNS effects of H1 blockers

sedative (can be excitatory in children and the elderly)
anti-emetic
anti-nausea

12

H1 blockers cause the drying of this

mucous membranes
histamine stimulates the secretion

13

How does H1 blockers affect the peripheral nervous system

acts as a local anesthetic

14

Hows does H1 blockers affect the smooth muscle

it is a dilator; bronchial smooth muscle dilator

15

H1 blockers inhibit the secretion of what

interleukins, which are stimulators of the immune system and other inflammatory mediators

16

H2 blockers affect gastric secretion how

histamine is required to stimulate gastric secretion from parietal cells, an H2 blockade leads to a decrease in acid secretion

17

What three things under the category of "dermatoses" are the first generation classes H1 anti-histamines used for

urticarias (itching)
insect stings/bites
allergic rhinitis and allergic conjunctivitis

18

What are H1 antihistamines NOT of value in treating

asthma or the common cold

19

H1 anti-histamines are used for these two things besides dermatoses

motion sickness (anti-emetic, anti-nauseant)
sedative

20

This first generation h1 blocker has sedative effects and is used for motion sickness

diphenyhydramine

21

This first generation h1 blocker is used for motion sickness

clemastine

22

This first generation h1 blocker is not used for motion sickness

chlopheniramine

23

This first generation h1 blocker is used as a sedative and anti-itch

hydroxyzine

24

This first generation h1 blocker was a precursor of the first anti-psychotic drugs and is a strong sedative/anti-emetic

promethazine

25

This first generation h1 blocker is a sedative and has local anesthetic effects

tripelennamine

26

True or False
The first generation h1 blockers can ever the CNS

True; because they are not ionized

27

All of the first generation h1 blockers can act on what

the peripheral and central histamine receptors

28

What are the four second generation h1 blockers

the "-ines"
lortadine
fexofenadine
desloratadine
cetirizine

29

The second generation H1 blockers have less this than compared to the first generation

CNS effects; all are ionized in the blood

30

What are the three toxicities and contraindications for ALL h1 blockers

high therapeutic index
first generations can react with other CNS depressants
anti-mucarinic effects

31

What are the four H2 blockers

(-tidine's)
cimetidine
rantidine
famotidine
nazitidine

32

What is the side effects of cimetidine

H2 blocker
anti-androgen effects
breast growth in males
lactation in women
low sperm count

33

The -tidine drugs do not cross what

the blood brain barrier
(H2 blockers)

34

What is serotonin synthesized from

tryptophan

35

What are the four physiologic effects of serotonin

smooth muscle constriction
itching and pain
central neurotransmission (important neurotransmitter)
can cause nausea

36

What is carcinoid syndrome

tumor of enterochromaffin cells (where serotonin is found)

37

What are the five effects of an increase in serotonin

diarrhea
bronchospasm
sin flushing
fibrosis of heart valves
no CNS effects; produced peripherally

38

How is the role of serotonin in migraines inferred

by the effect of certain drugs useful in treating migraines

39

How do the agents that affect migraines alter the serotonin system

agonists or partial agonists of serotonin receptor

40

The serotonin agonists that act on migraines all cause what

vasoconstriction

41

What are the agents that act on serotonin receptors

the "-triptan's"
sumatriptan

42

The triptan drugs should never be given with these drugs, would lead to a synergistic effect

SSRIs or MAO inhibitors

43

What is serotonin syndrome

hyperthermia and muscle twitching

44

What are the two ergot alkaloids

ergotamine
dihydrogotamine

45

How do the ergot alkaloids affect serotonin

partial serotonin agonists; can also affect adrenergic and dopaminergic receptors

46

What are the for side effects of ergot alkaloids

ergotism; excess of ergot alkaloids
"St. Anthony's fire"
hallucinations
uterine contractions
severe vasospasms; gangrene

47

What is the pregnancy category of ergot alkaloids (ergotamine and dihydrogotamine)

X