Exam 1; Introduction of Pharmacology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam 1; Introduction of Pharmacology Deck (42):
1

How many unique drugs were introduced last year

19

2

What is pharmacodynamics

the mechanism by which drugs act on the body

3

All drugs must have what

a target

4

What general substances can be drug targets

specific biochemical or physiological chemicals
can be specific or non-specific

5

What five things in a cell can be a drug target

membrane receptor
intracellular receptor
transporter
ion channel
enzymatic pathways

6

Antacids are agents that work by what

general chemical effects

7

Laxatives and Diuretics are agents that work by what

osmotic effects

8

Agents that act by binding non-specifically to large molecules include what two things

protein denaturants - ethanol
anticancer drugs bind nonspecifically to DNA

9

Agents that bind specifically to large molecules includes what

monocolonal antibodies; such as infliximab (-mab ending)
binds to TNF use to treat arthritis

10

This agent inhibits the specific enzyme cyclooxygenase (anti-inflammatory)

asprin

11

This agent inhibits the specific enzyme dihydrofolate (anti-neoplastic)

methothrexate

12

This agent inhibits the specific enzyme monoamine oxidase (anti-depressant)

tranylcypromine

13

This agent activates the specific enzyme guanylate cyclase (treatment of angina; vasodilation)

nitroglycerin

14

This agent activates the specific enzyme anti-thrombin 3 (anti-coagulate)

heparin

15

This agent binds to and inactivates a protein kinase (leukemia treatment)

imitinib

16

This agent acts upon a transport system by inhibiting norepinephrine uptake by the neuron

cocaine

17

This agent acts upon a transport system by diuretic blocking (inhibiting) transport on Na and Cl by kidney tubule

chlorothiazide

18

This agent acts upon a transport system by inhibiting serotonin re-uptake by neurons (antidepressant)

fluoxetine

19

This agent acts upon a transport system by inhibiting hydrogen ion transport by parietal cells; decreases stomach acid

omeprazole

20

This agent acts upon an ion channel by blocking calcium channels; anti-hypertensive

nifedipine

21

This agent acts upon an ion channel by increasing K uptake; anti-hypertensive

minoxidil

22

This agent acts upon an ion channel by inhibiting Na channels; local anesthetic

procaine

23

This agent acts upon a cell membrane receptor by blocking β-adrenergic receptors; anti-hypertensive

propranolol

24

These agents act upon a intracellular receptors

steroids - glucocorticoids - cortisol

25

This is a protein or protein complex which is a detector of cell signals

receptor

26

What are the three main characters of a receptor

sensitivity
selectivity
specificity

27

Receptor activators are what

agonists

28

Receptor blockers are what

antagonists

29

What do partial agonists do?

bind to receptor but doesn't fully activate it

30

What three changes occur when a receptor is bound by an agonist

enzyme activation
activation of transport system
opening of an ion channel

31

Intracellular receptors alter what

DNA expression (steroids)

32

True or False
The number and sensitivity of receptors cannot change over time

False; it can change over time

33

What mechanism can cause receptor sensitivity to change over time

continual stimulation --> down regulation of receptors
drug tolerance, desensitization

34

This is very rapid desensitization (can occur within minutes); nose drops

tachyphylaxis

35

What is the dose-response curve

the biological effect of response of different doses; sigmoidal dose-response curve

36

What three things does the dose-response curve show

dose at which the effect first occurs
dose that causes maximal effect
dose and which 50% of max effect occurs

37

The maximal therapeutic effect of a drug is also called what

efficacy

38

The more efficacious a drug is, the more what

the more useful it is

39

The effect of the drug relative to the dose is called what

potentacy

40

What is ED50

the dose at which 50% of max efficacy; clinical dose

41

What is the TD50

the dose at which 50% of max toxic dose

42

What is the therapeutic index of a drug

TD50/ED50