Exam 3; Anemais and Hematinic Agents Flashcards Preview

AU14 Pharmacology > Exam 3; Anemais and Hematinic Agents > Flashcards

Flashcards in Exam 3; Anemais and Hematinic Agents Deck (53):
1

True or False
Anemia is the most common blood disorder

True

2

A stem cells need erythropoietin to become what

proerythroblast

3

A pro erythroblast needs Fe into the hemoglobin to become what

reticulocyte

4

The reticulocyte looses its cell nucleus

erythrocyte

5

This speeds up RBC synthesis

erythropoietin

6

This is also know as microcytic anemia

nutritional anemias

7

What is the cause of microcytic anemais

relative lack of iron; RBCs are small and contain less hemoglobin (pale in color)

8

True or False
there is no mechanism for eliminating iron from the body

True

9

Ingested iron is solubilized by what

HCl

10

What is iron absorbed as

Fe++ (ferrous)

11

Iron is carried as what throughout the body

Fe3+
ferric iron

12

What transforms ferrous into ferric iron

transferrin

13

Does transferring increase or decrease during times of anemia

increase

14

If there in an excess of iron, it is bound to and stored as what, primarily in the liver

ferritin

15

What are two probably causes of iron deficiency

decreased iron uptake; not enough iron in the diet
decreased absorption; GI dysfunction

16

What three conditions have an increased iron requirement

pregnancy
during period of rapid growth
patients with renal disease

17

When can you excessively lose iron

chronic blood loss
heavy menstruation

18

What is the drug of choice for microcytic anemia

iron; FeSO4; ferrous sulfate

19

What are the two methods to administer iron

orally
parenterlly; if there is an issue with oral or severe deficiency

20

What is a side effect of taking iron orally

GI upset; slow release will help

21

What is a side effect of parenteral iron dosage

iron dextran (IM)
given subdural could leave a stain

22

What is a extreme toxicity of oral iron

lethal dose is only around 10 tablets (or 3 grams)
sometimes the pills look like candies

23

What are some symptoms of acute iron toxicity

nausea
severe abdominal pain
mucosal damage
drowsiness
cardiovascular collapse
convulsions

24

What is the treatment for iron toxicity

achelate agent; deferoxamine

25

If there is chronically too much iron stored, what is the treatment

phlebotomy; bleeding

26

What are the characteristics of microcytic anemias

large RBC precursors
multinucleate nuclei due ti inhibition of DNA synthesis
get bigger without dividing

27

This is necessary for DNA replication; if you are deficient, you don't make enough thiamine

folic acid

28

A folic acid deficiency can also leads to this deficiency

methionine

29

What is a symptom of folic acid deficiency

macrycytic RBC precursor

30

This most likely is not the case of the cause of a folic acid deficiency

dietary intake (unless alcoholics)
folic acid is found primarily in green vegetables

31

What is the absorption rate of folic acid

rapid; GI dysfunction could stall it

32

What are three systemic requirements of folic acid

infection
pregnancy

33

Folic acid deficiency in pregnancy can lead to what

neural tube defects; flour companies add it now

34

What is the treatment for a folic acid deficiency

oral therapy is sufficient; parental if there is abnormal absorption
no contraindications or toxicities

35

This is essential for DNA synthesis and methionine

B12

36

What type of anemia can result from a B12 deficiency

megaloblastic anemia

37

B12 can cause a lack of methionine synthesis which can lead to what

decreased myelin synthesis = neuronal damage

38

What are symptoms of the neuronal damage brought upon by B12 deficiency

weakness
ataxia
spasticity
irreversible spinal cord damage

39

True or False
One of the main causes of B12 deficiency is insufficient intake

False; thats very rare

40

What is the main cause of B12 deficiency

decreased absorption

41

Parietal cells in the stomach make this

intrinsic factor (GIF)

42

B12 requires this for absorption

GIF

43

If a patient lacks that ability to make GIF, what occurs

b12 deficiency, then leads to pernicious anemia, which is fatal if not treated

44

If the b12 deficiency is not due to a lack of GIF, which type of administration is okay

oral

45

If there is pernicious anemia, B12 must be given how

by injection

46

What is shot gun therapy

loading them up with iron, folic acid, B12, etc.

47

What are three drugs used to treat anemias caused by chronic renal failure or chemotherapy

epoietin alfa
darbepoietin
peginesatide

48

What are three toxicities of epoietin alfa, darbepoietin, peginesatide

increased BP
increased clotting
MI
stroke

49

Hemolytic anemias are the result of what

abnormal lysis of RBCs; genetic or acquired

50

This treatment may be useful for treating hemolytic anemias

erythropoietin

51

This drug is used to treat sickle cell anemia

hyroxyurea

52

What is the mechanism of hyroxyurea

increases the formation of fetal hemoglobin which doesn't sickle

53

What are two side effects of hyroxyurea

mutagenic
preg. category X