Exam 1; Antihypertensive Agents Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam 1; Antihypertensive Agents Deck (80)
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1

What is the definition of hypertension

any prolonged elevation in blood pressure
most common cardiovascular disease
most are untreated

2

What is the desirable blood pressure

115/75

3

What category of blood pressure is pre-hypertensive

120/80-139/89

4

What category of blood pressure is stage 1 hypertension

140/90

5

What category of blood pressure is stage 2 hypertension

180/110

6

What category of blood pressure is hypertensive urgency

220/120

7

Every increase in blood pressure of what increases likelihood of cardiovascular incident by two fold

20/10

8

What is the result if 220/120 blood pressure is untreated for the long term

60% die within 6 months
80% dies within the year

9

What is it about hypertension that makes it so dangerous

it is generally asymptomatic until its final stages; can cause stroke, heart attack, aneurysms, and renal failure

10

True or False
There is a clear treatment option for hypertension

True

11

What is secondary hypertension (5-10%)

Know exactly what the problem/cause is (renal, tumor, etc.)

12

What is primary or essential hypertension

the cause is unknown

13

What is malignant hypertension

220/120+

14

A baroreceptor on the blood vessel stimulates what center of the brain

vasomotor center

15

In the vasomotor center of the brain, what occurs upon receiving a signal from the baroreceptor

NE is released to an α1 receptor which increases sympathetic flow
NE also autostimulates an α2 receptor which decreases sympathetic flow

16

The synapse from the vasomotor center relays to what

a paravertebral ganglia

17

From the paravertebral ganglia, what two places does the signal from the vasomotor center go

β1 receptors on the heart to increase cardiovascular output
α1 receptors on the blood vessel to stimulate vasoconstriction

18

A calcium influx into the blood vessel causes what to occur

constriction

19

A potassium efflux out of the blood vessel causes what to occur

relaxation

20

An increase cyclicGMP activity in the blood vessel causes what to occur

relaxation

21

Stimulation of an endothelium receptor on a blood vessel causes what to occur

constriction

22

Stimulation of a DA (dopamine) receptor on a blood vessel causes what to occur

relaxation

23

Stimulation of the angiotension II receptor by angiotension II on a blood vessel causes what to occur

constriction

24

The neuronal-vascular control loop is what kind of response to blood pressure changes

extremely rapid response (sudden dizziness upon sitting up quickly)
reflex blood pressure control

25

The kidney control loop system is what kind of response to blood pressure changes

long term regulation of blood pressure
renin-angiotension-aldesterone system

26

A decrease in renal blood pressure or decrease in Na in the kidney stimulates what

increases renin secretion by the kidney

27

Renin from the kidney is a precursor to what, via angiotensionogen

angiotension I

28

Angiotension 1 is converted to what via angiotension converting enzyme

angiotension II

29

Angiotension II has what three effects

vasoconstriction
Na retention in the kidney
secretion of aldesterone

30

This is converted to an inactive product by angiotension converting enzyme

bradykinin