Exam 4 - Ch 17 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam 4 - Ch 17 Deck (52):
1

OT practitioners use ______ and ____ techniques to help children perform in school, at home, or on the playground.

positioning, handling

2

Considered static - refers to children's ability to maintain postural control while participating in activities.

positioning

3

This refers to dynamic techniques used to guide children's or adolescents' movements.

Handling

4

Movements in and out of different positions are called ___________ movements

transitional

5

Neonates are born with ______ because of their position in utero. It passively stretches all of the extensor muscles of the trunk particularly during the last trimester of pregnancy.

physiological flexion

6

When the skeletal system is aligned each side for the body develops adequate muscle strength needed for postural stability. This type of alignment helps children maintain the full ROM for movement.

Symmetrical

7

When helping children maintain a position, the OT practitioner considers _______ development and the many different positions.

typical

8

Children develop ____________ and _________ as they make sense of their position in space and view things from different angles.

perception; body awareness

9

Maintaining positions requires _____ control

postural

10

The ability to maintain or stabilize a posture

Stability

11

The ability to move into or assume a posture

Mobility

12

Balance, also referred to as ________, refers to the ability to maintain the center of gravity over the base of support.

Postural Stability

13

The point where where the total body weight is most evenly distributed over the base of support.

center of gravity

14

The center of gravity is known as the ________ when it relates to the child's center of distribution.

center of mass

15

Those reactions that bring the body back to midline position and are defined as the maintenance of the proper alignment of the head and trunk in space.

righting reactions

16

These reactions help one maintain balance when the center of mass is shifted too far over the base of support

equilibrium reactions

17

These reactions occur when the body's center of mass is shifted too far off the base of support and righting and equilibrium reactions cannot bring the body back to midline.

protective extension

18

This term refers to the change in the center of mass so that one can move the body part.

weight shift

19

Principles of Positioning (POP) for kids includes providing the child with a variety of ______ options throughout the day

positioning

20

(POP) for kids: Placing child in positions that enhance _______.

function

21

(POP) for kids: Avoiding positions that ____ the child's movement.

restrict

22

(POP) for kids: Providing positions that are ________ for the child.

comfortable

23

(POP) for kids: Considering _____ when prescribing position

safety

24

(POP) for kids: Ensuring proper skeletal alignment and ____ during positioning of the child

symmetry

25

(POP) for kids: Recommending ________ equipment that provides external stability to facilitate movement

positioning

26

What position facilitates neck and trunk extension and thus helps children build muscle strength and stability in the neck, upper back, shoulders, arms, and hands?

prone

27

Within the first months of life, as ______ develops, physiologic flexion becomes less and less.

cervical extension

28

When working with an infant or child who is in the ____ position, support the child's head in a flexed forward position.

supine

29

What position requires coactivation of the head and trunk flexors and extensors?

side-lying

30

This type of awareness promotes successful engagement in functional activities such as bringing the hands to the mouth or manipulating a toy bilaterally

body scheme awareness

31

This position requires children to maintain postural control of the head, trunk, and extremities against the pull of gravity and requires coactivation of the trunk flexors and extensors.

Sitting position

32

Sitting guidlelines 4 kids (SG4K): Hips and knees are flexed to __ degrees.

90

33

SG4K: ______ rests against chair back.

back

34

SG4K: The trunk is _____.

vertical

35

SG4K: The body is _____.

symmetrical

36

SG4K: The __ is aligned with the ___, at midline, and flexed slightly forward.

head, trunk

37

SG4K: Name the 3 back curves...

cervical, thoracic, and lumbar

38

SG4k: Both feet are positioned ______.

flat on the floor

39

The tabletop or lapboard is positioned at _______.

elbow height

40

_______ chairs are frequently used to decrease muscle tone in the hip adductors and internal rotation

bolster

41

What weights do wheelchairs come in?

ultralight, light, and heavy

42

What is it called when rear tires are filled with air?

pneumatic

43

Children with poor trunk control may favor a _-sitting position

W

44

What is the goal of therapeutic positioning?

To provide the necessary support to promote children's active engagement in occupations.

45

What is NDT?

Neurodevelopmental Treatment

46

What is NDT in a nutshell?

Through Reputition of movement, children develop neural pathways to help them move efficiently and accurately

47

Name some proximal key points of control

shoulders, hips, trunk, and pelvis

48

Inhibitory techniques are used to reduce ______.

hypertonicity

49

facilitation techniques are used to reduce _______.

hypotonicity (reduce is the key word - reduce the lack of muscle...get it? So basically you are trying to increase muscle strength)

50

For a list of NDT principles that guide interventions, see page 337 and 338

That's it - freebie to increase percentage

51

This type of therapy is used to facilitate normal postural control and movements so that children are able to engage in meaningful and age-appropriate activities.

Therapeutic Handling

52

What does NDT start with?

assessment