Flashcards in Quiz 2 - Chapter 16 Deck (18)
Developmental motor disorders arising from a lesion or disorder of the brain. Disordered movement patterns are seen in the head/neck, arms, legs, and trunk. It is nonprogressive, nonhereditary, and noncontagious.
Cerebral palsy (CP)
Immediate, direct result of the corticol lesion in the brain of someone with CP.
Prenatal risk factors associated with the development of CP.
- Genetic disorders
- Maternal health factors (e.g. malnutrition, chronic stress)
- Teratogenic agents
Perinatal risk factors associated with the development of CP.
- Prenatal conditions
- Premature detachment of the placenta
- Medical problems associated with prematurity
- Multiple births
Postnatal risk factors associated with the development of CP.
- Degenerative disorders
- Alcohol or drug intoxication transferred through breastfeeding
- Anoxic ischemic encephalopathy
1) Abnormal muscle tone
2) Persistence of primitive reflexes
3) Atypical righting, equilibrium, and protective responses
4) Poor sensory processing
5) Joint hypermobility
6) Muscle weakness and poor muscle coactivation
7) Delays in typical progressing of motor skills and adaptive function
8) Decreased exploration of the environment
Common problems of Motor Development in children with CP.
The force with which a muscle resists being lengthened and can also be defined as the muscle's resting stiffness.
- Normal muscle tone
- Normal postural tone
- Developmental integration of early, primitive reflex patterns.
- Emergence of righting reactions, equilibrium reactions, and protective extension reactions.
- Intentional, voluntary movements against the forces of gravity.
- The ability to combine movement patterns in the performance of functional activities.
CP affecting one extremity is commonly referred to as this...
CP affecting upper and lower extremities on one side of the body...
CP affecting both lower extremities...
diplegia or paraplegia
CP affecting all limbs...
CP affecting all limbs and the head/neck...
Four main types of movement disorder classifications for CP -
A velocity-dependent resistance to stretch. (Associated with clonus, an extensor plantar response, and primitive reflexes.) When a child with this type of CP attempts to move, excessive muscle tone builds up and then is rapidly released. Results in poor control of voluntary movement and difficulty regulating the force of movement.
spasticity (Spastic CP)
Includes athetoid, choreoathetoid, and dystonic CP. (Typically quadriplegia is seen in all three of these types.) Child will exhibit slow, writhing movements in combination with abrupt, irregular, and jerky movements. .
Dyskinetic CP (Dyskinesias)
This type of CP has less effect on muscle tone, but greatly impacts balance and coordination. These children often appear clumsy and may have tremors involuntarily and at rest.
Ataxic CP (Ataxia)