Name the 5 Muscles of the mouth (facial expressive).
Depressor anguli oris
Levator anguli oris
What nerve innervates all of the 5 mouth muscles?
Facial CN VII
What is the insertion of every facial expression muscle?
All facial muscles are extensions of what?
What are the facial expressive muscles of the lips?
Levator labii superioris Depressor labii inferioris
What muscle in the face has two functions? What are they?
Buccinator Facial expression and Mastication
Name the muscles of the Chin and Nose.
Name the facial expressive mm. of the eye, forehead, and ear.
Eye (1) Orbicularis Oculi Forehead (2) Occipitofrontalis & Procerus Ear (3) Ant, Superior, Post. Auricularis
Trace CN VII's main branchial motor pathway.
Cell bodies of LMN in Motor nucleus of VII (pons) > internal acoustic meatus > facial canal > stylomastoid foramen > passes through the parotid gland to target muscles
T/F The facial nerve synapses in the Parotid Gland.
False Just passes through
What are the main facial expressive innervations of CN VII?
Temporal branch Zygomatic branch Buccal branch Mandibular branch Cervical branch To Zanzibar By Motor Car
Name some additional (outside to zanzibar by motor car) nerve branches of CNVII facial expression?
Auricularis and Occipitalis Stylohyoid Post. Digastric
What's another name for the V1, V2, and V3 general sensory divisions on the face?
Ophthalmic Maxillary Mandibular
The sensory cell bodies for V1 are located in the...
V1 general sensory pathway:
sensory cell bodies in Trigemninal ganglion > cavernous sinus > superior orbital fissure > orbit > BRANCHES
What are the three main branches (nn.'s) of V1 once it gets into the orbit?
Lacrimal n. Frontal n. Nasociliary n.
Where did the Frontal n. come from, what does it divide into and what does it innervate?
V1 Supraorbital n. - upper eyelid, forehead, scalp Supratrochlear n - upper eyelid, forehead, scalp
Where did the Nasociliary n. come from, what does it divide into, and what do those divisions innervate?
V1 Infratrochlear n. - medial/upper eyelid and lacrimal sac & Anterior Ethmoid n. > External nasal n. - bridge of nose
What are the 3 different sensory nuclei for CN V?
Proprioceptive Touch Pain.Temperature (these are Modalities)
V2 General sensory pathway:
Cell bodies in trigeminal ganglion > cavernous sinus > foramen rotundum > PPF > branches
What is the branch of V2 in the PPF that goes onto the zygomatic?
Zygomatic n. Zygomaticofacial n. Zygomaticotemporal n.
What do the zygomaticofacial and zygomaticotemporal nn.'s innervate?
skin over zygomatic arch skin of anterior temple
Zygomatic n. pathway from the PPF:
PPF > inferior orbital fissure > orbit > zygomatico-orbital foramen
What is considered to be the terminal branches of V2?
The infraorbital n. exiting the infraorbital foramen.
Infraorbital pathway from PPF:
PPF > inferior orbital fissure > orbital canal > infraorbital foramen
What are the 3 branches of the infraorbital n. and what do they innervate?
Inferior palpebral branches (lower eyelid) Lateral nasal branches (lateral nose) Superior labial n. (upper lip)
V3 general sensory pathway:
Trigeminal ganglion > branches from ganglion in cranial cavity > Foramen Ovale > Infratemporal fossa > branches
Does V3 go through the cavernous sinus?
What are the two branches (that come off the main general sensory branch) of V3 once in the Infratemporal Fossa, and what do they innervate?
Anterior trunk (Buccal n.) cheek/mandibular buccal gingiva Posterior trunk (Auriculotemporal n.) auricle/skin of temple and lateral scalp
What is considered the terminal branch of general sensory V3?
The mental n.
What does the mental n. innervate?
Chin, lower lip, labial gingiva
What main artery of the face can be traced back to the Internal Carotid?
Name the 7 arteries arising from the Opthalmic. a. (and thus the Internal Carotid).
Lacrimal Zygomaticofacial Zygomaticotemporal Supraorbital Supratrochlear Dorsal nasal External nasal
What nerve accompanies the dorsal nasal a.?
What artery arises from the Anterior Ethmoid?
External nasal a.
What are the two terminal branches of the External Carotid?
Maxillary Superficial Temporal
Name 4 arteries coming off the Facial a.
Inferior labial a. Superior labial a. Lateral nasal a. Angular a.
What is an important division of the Superficial Temporal a.?
Transverse facial a.
What 3 arterial systems deliver blood to the face?
Internal carotid External carotid Maxillary
What 2 branches of the Maxillary artery arise in the infratemporal fossa?
Inferior Alveolar (then Mental) Buccal a.
T/F The maxillary a. travels both into the infratemporal fossa and the PPF.
T/F The Buccal a. travels to the mandible.
False. The buccal a. goes to the maxillary region.
Trace the maxillary a. to the infraorbital a.
Internal carotid > Maxillary > Infraorbital fossa > PPF > Infraorbital fissure > Infraorbital canal > Infraorbital a.
The Infraorbital a. continues on to branch into what three arteries?
Inferior palpebral Lateral nasal Superior labial
Veins follow arteries of the same name until they reach the...
T/F The cavernous sinus is drained by facial veins.
True (this seems weird - apparently cavernous sinus can be drained via the face or through the cranial sinuses and out the jugular)
Where is the angular v.? What vein precedes? What vein comes after?
medial anterior orbit - comes from the superior opthalmic and drains into the facial v.
Where do the superior and inferior petrosal sinuses drain?
Into the sigmoid sinus
What precedes and comes after the Retromandibular v.?
Superficial Temporal before Internal jugular after
What do the facial v. and external palatine v. drain into?
Retromandibular > Internal jugular
The external jugular drains what general area?
The posterior head
The Anterior jugular drains what general area?
Anterior neck and some anterior mandible
The Internal jugular drains what general area?
Most of temporal and facial region, as well as the cranial cavity.
What type of tissue surrounds the Parotid gland?
Deep investing fascia.
Where is Stenson's duct, and what is it a part of?
Around maxillary 2nd molar - duct that empties parotid gland into mouth.
Does the facial nerve innervate the Parotid gland?
Where do the superficial temporal v. and Maxillary v. come together, and what do they form
Parotid gland. Forms the Retromandibular v.
What are the two divisions of the external carotid close to the Parotid gland?
Maxillary a. Superficial temporal a.
What is an important division of the superficial temporal a.?
Transverse facial a.
What is the general sensory innervation for the Parotid Gland?
Great auricular n. from V3
Parasympathetic innervation of the Parotid?
CN IX Glossopharyngeal
Pathway Parasympathetic to Parotid:
Pre-ganglionic cell bodies in INFERIOR SALIVATORY NUCLEUS (medulla) > jugular foramen > tympanic n. > tympanic canal > middle ear > tympanic plexus > lesser petrosal n. > Foramen Ovale > infratemporal fossa > OTIC GANGLION > join auriculotemporal n. of V3 to Parotid.
What branches of the facial n. pass through the Parotid region?
Temporal, zygomatic, buccal, mandibular, cervical, suprahyoid, auricular, occipital (To Zanzibar By Motorcar, Straight Outa Africa)
What are the V1 nn. of the face that emerge from the orbit?
lacrimal supraorbital supratrochlear infratrochlear external nasal (branch of ethmoid)
What are the V2 branches that divide in the orbit and ride with the lacrimal n.?
Zygomaticofacial Zygomaticotemporal (these are both branches of the zygomatic n. )
What nn. emerge from the infraorbital foramen?
Inferior palpebral lateral nasal superior labial
From what two places do V3 sensory branches emerge?
Infratemporal fossa Mental foramen
What two V3 nn. originate in the infratemporal fossa?
Long buccal auriculotemporal (sensory)
Name four branches of the facial artery.
Inferior labial superior labial lateral nasal angular
Name three branches of the infraorbital artery.
Inferior palpebral lateral nasal superior labial
From where does the opthalmic artery arise?
Name 7 braches of the opthalmic artery.
zygomaticotemporal zygomaticofacial lacrimal supraorbital supratrochlear dorsal nasal external nasal
What nerve does the dorsal nasal a. run with?
The External nasal a. is a branch of what?
Anterior Ethmoid a.
The Buccal a. is a division of the...
The mental a. is a division of the...
Inferior alveolar a.
The Transverse facial a. is a division of the...
Superficial temporal a.
What artery goes both into the infratemporal fossa and the PPF?
What are the contents of the Temporal Fossa?
Temporalis m. Superficial Temporal artery (and divisions Ant/Mid/Post) Maxillary artery (Deep temporal artery) Deep temporal nn (motor V3) Auriculotemporal n. (general sensory V3) Zygomaticotemporal n. (general sensory V2)
What are the 6 boundaries of the Infratemporal Fossa?
Medial - Lateral Pterygoid plate Lateral - ramus of mandible Anterior - posterior aspect of maxilla Posterior - stylomandibular ligament, condyle of mandible, mastoid/styloid processes, tympanic plate Superior - Inferior surface greater wing sphenoid Inferior - Medial pterygoid attachment to mandible
What 4 communications does the infratemporal fossa have?
Foramen ovale Foramen spinosum Pterygomaxillary fissure Inferior orbital fissure
What are the 5 muscles of mastication?
Temporalis Masseter Medial Pterygoid Lateral Pterygoid Buccinator
What is the action of the temporalis m.?
Elevate and Retrude
What is the action of the Masseter m.?
Superficial head: Elevate and Protrude Deep head: Retrude from Protruded position
What is the action of the Lateral Pterygoid m.?
Alone: move mandible oppisite side Together: Protrude mandible
What is the action of the Medial Pterygoid m.?
Elevate and Protrude Mandible
What is the action of the Buccinator m.?
Compress cheeks to push food onto teeth
T/F The Pterygoid plate is anterior to the mandibular condyle.
True (think lateral pterygoid)
What three muscles of mastication elevate the mandible?
Masseter, Medial Pterygoid, and Temporalis
What are the muscles of mastication innervated by, and what is the exception to the rule?
CN V innervates all but the Buccinator, which is innervated by CN VII
How many divisions does the Maxillary a. have?
Trace the divisions of the 1st part of the Maxillary a.
Inferior alveolar a. Anterior tympanic a. Deep auricular a. Middle meningeal a.
What are two further divisions of the Inferior alveolar a.?
Mylohyoid a. Mental a.
Does the mylohyoid a. enter the mandibular canal?
Name all the arteries branching from the 2nd part of the Maxillary a.
Masseteric a. Ant. and Post. deep temporal aa. Pterygoid branches Buccal branch
What vv. make up the Retromandibular v.?
Maxillary v. and Superficial temporal v.
Where is the Pterygoid venous plexus?
The infratemporal fossa
T/F All the nerves in the infratemporal fossa are branches of V3.
False. All EXCEPT the Chorda Tympani and OTIC ganglion
What two pathways utilize the Chorda Tympani?
Facial n. Parasympathetic to the salivary glands (submandibular and sublingual) Facial n. Special sensory to the Ant. 2/3 Tongue (this is the LINGUAL n.)
What is the artery and nerve coming through the Sphenopalatine foramen?
Sphenopalatine a. Nasopalatine n.
T/F The Hypoglossal n. goes through the infratemporal fossa.
FALSE CNXII - it's right in its name - the HYPOglossal innervates from underneath the tongue and takes a different pathway to get there (Hypoglossal Canal > Tongue)
The mesencephalic nucleus and the Pontine Trigeminal nucleus are only used by...
The nucleus ambiguous serves what functions in what nerves?
Branchial motor IX and X
What is the Parasympathetic motor nucleus in CN III?
Edinger Westfall nucleus
What is the motor nucleus for CN V?
Trigeminal motor nucleus
What are the 3 general sensory modalities?
Mesencephalic: Muscle proprioception Pontine trigeminal: Touch Nucleus of Spinal Tract: Pain/Temp
What is the special sensory nucleus for CN VII?
Name the cranial nerves that use the Nucleus Solitarius.
CN VII, IX, X
What is the Parasympathetic nucleus for VII?
Superior Salivatory nucleus
What is the Parasympathetic nucleus for IX?
Inferior Salivatory nucleus
What general sensory nucleus serves 3 C.N.'s?
Nerve of the Spinal Tract (XII, IX, X)
What is the function of the Nucleus Ambiguous and what nerves use it?
Branchial Motor IX and X
What is the parasympathetic nucleus for X?
Dorsal Vagal nucleus
What is the Ganglion and location for CN III?
Ciliary In eye (parasympathetic)
What is the Ganglion and location for CN V?
Where is the Ganglion for CN VII?
Geniculate - in facial canal (Sensory) Pterygopalatine/Submandibular (Parasympathetic)
What are the 2 ganglion used by CN IX?
Superior/Inferior Glossopharyngeal Otic ganglion
What ganglion does the vagal nerve use?
Where is the main trunk of V3 found? Is it mostly motor or sensory?
Infratemportal fossa Mostly motor (one sensory branch)
Does the posterior division off the main trunk of V3 have a sensory branch?
YES it is mostly sensory
What muscles are innervated by nn.'s coming off the main branch of V3?
Tensor Tympani Tensor veli palatini Medial Pterygoid
What innervates the dura in the middle cranial fossa?
V3 (branch off main trunk)
Name 3 mm. innervated by the Anterior branch of V3?
Lateral pterygoid Masseter Temporalis
What is the one motor innervation coming off the posterior branch of V3?
Name 3 nn.'s coming from the Posterior division of V3.
Aurioculotemporan n. Inferior Alveolar n. Lingual n.
What kind of fibers does the Lingual n. carry?
General Sensory (this is a V3 n.) AND Special Sensory (Facial n. rides along)
What kinds of fibers does the Chorda Tympani carry?
Parasympathetic (to submandibular/sublingual glands) Special Sensory (to Ant 1/3 tongue)
Is the Inferior Alveolar n. entirely sensory?
No. It has one motor branch - the n. to the Mylohyoid.
What function is associated with Otic ganglion?
Parasympathetic (to parotid)
Where does the special sensory function CN IX synapse?
Nucleus Solitarius (remember, cell body is in the Inferior Glossopharyngeal Ganglia)
What is the order, posterior to anterior, of the IA a., IA n., and Lingual n.?
IA a. IA n. Lingual n.
What n. travels into the Pterygoid Canal?
Greater Petrosal n. (CN VII parasympathetic pathway to lacrimal/mucous gland of nose) (Pterygoid a.runs out of the PPF)
What n. travels through the foramen rotundum?
What n. travels through the sphenopalatine foramen?
T/F The blood supply to the teeth is entirely Maxillary.
What are the branches that provide blood to the teeth?
Mandibular - Inferior Alveolar a. Maxillary - PSA, MSA, ASA (this comprises the 4 alveolar aa.)
What are the 3 branches directly off of V2 in the PPF?
PSA n. Zygomatic n. (zygomaticofacial/zygomaticotemporal) Infraorbital n.
What is the n. going to the Maxillary molars out of the PPF? How does it get there?
PSA n. passes through posterior superior alveolar foramen
Name the artery and nerve passing through the Sphenopalatine foramen.
Nasopalatine n. Sphenopalatine a.
What are the nerves that pass through the Pterygopalatine Ganglion?
Greater palatine n. Lesser palatine n. Nasopalatine n. Posterior lateral nasal n. Pharyngeal n.
What n. does Parasympathetic CN VII pathway use?
Greater petrosal n.
What n. enters the Pterygoid canal?
Nerve o the pterygoid canal. (combo of Greater and deep petrosal nn.)
T/F The parasympathetic pathway of VII innervates the palate.
TRUE (smooth muscles in the hard and soft palate) So, Lacrimal, mucous nose, and hard/soft palate
What pathway does CNVII take to get to the hard/soft palate?
Superior Salivatory nucleus > Pterygopalatine ganglion > nasopalatine n. > nasal septum > incisive foramen OR Pterygopalatine ganglion > greater palatine n. > palatine canal > greater palatine foramen
Where is Alar cartilage?
Tip of the nose
What is the area superior to the superior conchae? What does it open into?
Sphenoethmoidal recess Sphenoid sinus
Where is the Superior Meatus of the nose? What does it open into?
below the superior conchae Posterior ethmoid air cells
What is below the middle conchae of the nose?
The middle meatus
Where is the inferior meatus? What opens onto it?
Below the inferior conchae nasolacrimal duct
What is the Ethmoid Bulla?
A bulge made by the ethmoid air cells
What opens onto the Middle meatus?
Frontal sinus Maxillary sinus Anterior ethmoid air cells
What sinus opens into the superior meatus?
posterior ethmoid air cells
What sinus opens ont the Sphenoethmoidal recess?
What sinus open onto the middle meatus?
Frontal and Maxillary sinuses (and ant. ethmoid air cells)
What sinus opens up onto the inferior meatus?
No sinus per se just nasolacrimal duct
T/F The Maxillary a. supplies all the blood to the nose.
False (facial a. and Opthalmic a.)
Name all the arteries that supply the nose.
Sphenopalatine a. Lateral posterior nasal branches (lateral nasal wall) Greater palatine artery Facial a. (only non-maxillary external carotid) Opthalmic a. (ant/post ethmoidal aa.)
How does the greater palatine get blood to the nose?
Through the incisive foramen upwards into the septum.
How do the anterior and posterior ethmoidal aa. get to the nose?
Exit ant/post ethmoidal foramen in the orbit > cribiform plate >descend into nasal cavity
What foramen passes through the Cribiform Plate?
The anterior and posterior ethmoidal foramen.
What sources provide blood to the superior and anterior septum and lateral walls?
Ant/Post Ethmoid aa. (from Opthalmic) Branches of the Facial a. (EC) Greater Palatine (Maxillary)
What artery provides blood supply to the posterior and inferior septum and lateral walls?
Sphenopalatine (from Maxillary) and its Lateral nasal branches
Nasocilliary n. Pathway:
This is a V1 pathway. Cell bodies Trigeminal G. > cavernous sinus > superior orbital fissure > Orbit > ant/post ethmoidal foramen > cribiform plate > Anterior and Superior septum and lateral walls.
Name 3 things going through the incisive foramen.
Sphenopalatine a. (going down) Nasopalatine n. (going down) Greater palatine a. (going up)
From what does the superior and inferior posterior lateral nasal n. arise? What does it innervate?
Nasopalatine n. posterior and inferior lateral nasal wall
What, in the nose, does the nasopalatine innervate?
The septum (posterior inferior)
What, in the nose, does the Anterior Ethmoid innervate?
Septum and lateral walls (anterior and superior)
Parasympathetic innervation of glands and smooth muscle of the nose:
CN VII Superior Salivatory nucleus > Internal acoustic meatus > facial canal > Greater petrosal n. > Pterygoid canal > PPF > Pterygopalatine Ganglion > Nasopalatine n. through Sphenopalatine foramen > targets in nose
How does the Sympathetic innervation of the nose enter the PPF?
synapse in superior cervical chain ganglia > IC > Deep petrosal n. joins Greater petrosal at Pterygoid canal.
Frontal sinus: Innervation Blood Supply Drainage
V1 Supraorbital n. Branch of opthalmic (supratrochlear/dorsonasal) Drains into middle meatus
Ethmoidal sinus (aka ethmoid air cells): Innervation Blood Supply Drainage
V1 (remember ethmoidal foramen in cribiform) Anterior Ethmoid (branch opthalmic) Drainage: Anterior - Middle meatus, Posterior - Superior meatus
Sphenoidal sinus: innervation blood supply drainage
V1 and CN VII Maxillary a. (sphenopalatine a.) Sphenoethmoidal recess
Maxillary sinus: Innervation Blood Supply Drainage
V2 Maxillary a. (infraorbital a.and PSA) Middle meatus
What is the one thing that drains into the Inferior meatus of the nose?
The nasolacrimal duct
What is superior to the maxillary sinus?
What is medial to the maxillary sinus?
nasal cavity (inferior nasal conchae)
What is inferior to the maxillary sinus?
Teeth (maxillary sinus located in body of maxilla)
What are the two arches seen posteriorly when the mouth is open?
Palatoglossal arch Palatopharyngeal arch
Where is the columella?
Groove tip of nose
T/F The philthrim runs obliquely from the lateral nose
False Philthrim is medial (nasolabial groove runs obliquely)
Arterial supply to the upper lip: Arterial supply to the lower lip:
Superior labial (from facial) Inferior labial (from facial)
Sensory nerve supply, Upper lip: Lower lip:
Motor n. supply to the lips:
Facial n. CN VII
What is the arterial supply to the cheeks?
Buccal (from Maxillary)
Upper half cheek sensory n. Lower half cheek sensory n.
What is the motor nerve supply to the cheek?
VII remember: this is the only muscle of mastication that isn't innervated by V3
What is palatal rugae?
Bumps on top of palate (probably a chewing aid)
Do the palate and pharynx contain taste buds?
YES CN X
What branchial arches are the anterior 2/3 and posterior 1/3 of the tongue derived from?
1st arch 3rd arch
Embryologically, what does the sulcus terminalis represent?
Where the 1st branchial arch meets the 3rd.
What are the general and special sensory innervations for and Anterior 2/3 of the tongue?
General - CN V (V3) Special - CN VII
What are the general and special sensory innervations for the Posterior 1/3 of the tongue?
CN IX does both
What tongue muscle curls superiorly and shortens?
What does the inferior longitudinal m. do in the tongue?
Curls inferiorly and shortens
What are the functions of the vertical mm. and transverse mm. in the tongue?
Vertical - flattens Transverse - narrows
What are the 3 functions of the Genioglossus m.?
Retract tip (superior fibers) Depress/protrude (middle fibers) Protrude/advance hyoid (inferior fibers)
What nerve innervates the Genioglossus m.?
What is the action and innervation of the Hyoglossus m.?
Action: retrude tongue and draw downward (raise hyoid) Innervation: CN XII
What is the action/innervation of the Styloglossus?
Retrude and draw sides upward CN XII
What is the action/innervation of the Palatoglossus?
elevate tongue, depress palate CN X (remember, vagus goes to epiglottis)
The tongue tends to deviate (away from/toward) the side of injury.
What innervates the stylohyoid, stylopharyngeus, and styloglossus?
Stylohyoid - CN VII Stylopharyngeus - CN IX Styloglossus - CN XII
What muscle can protrude, retrude, and depress the tongue?
What mm. elevate the tongue?
What mm. retrude the tongue?
genioglossus styloglossus hyoglossus
From whence does blood come to the tongue?
External carotid > Lingual a. > dorsal lingual > deep and sublingual aa.
Where does the Lingual n. go and what fibers does it carry?
Anterior 2/3 tongue Carries general sensory from V3 and special sensory from VII (chorda tympani)
How many nn. innervate the tongue and where are they?
Ant 2/3 - CN V, CN VII, CN XII Post 1/3 - CN IX, CN XII Palatoglossus - CN X
What muscle in the tongue isn't innervated by the Hypoglossus n?
The palatoglossus (vagus)
T/F The muscles of the tongue are derived from Branchial arches.
FALSE They are derived from somites. (therefore, somatic motor)
What is the primary function of the Lingual n.?
Think general sensory (although chroda tympani special sensory rides along)
Where are the Cell bodies for the general sensory function of the posterior 2/3 of the tongue?
Superior and inferior glossopharyngeal and vagal ganglia
Where are the cell bodies in special sensory function of the anterior 2/3 of the tongue?
Does CN XII go through the infratemporal fossa?
From whence does blood supply come for the tongue?
Lingual a. - coming off EC
Where does the mylohyoid derive its blood supply from?
What are the innervations of the mm. in the floor of the mouth?
Mylohyoid - V3 Geniohyoid - CN XII Genioglossus - CN XII
What nerve and what function innervates the submandibular gland?
Chorda tympani (riding with lingual n.) from VII Parasympathetic function
The hypoglossal function in the tongue is entirely:
The lingual artery is a branch of the ....
What are 3 branches of the lingual a.?
Dorsal lingual Sublingual Deep lingual
The submandibular and sublingual glands get their blood supply from the same source.
FALSE Submandibular - submental branch of Facial a. (from EC) Sublingual - sublingual branch of Lingual a. (from EC)
Trace the full parasympathetic innervation of the Submandibular glands
From CN VII Salivatory nucleus > int acoustic meatus > facial canal > chorda tympani > middle ear > petrotympanic fissure > infratemporal fossa > rides with lingual n. of V3 > synapse in submandibular ganglion > targets
What pathway does the sympathetic response use innervating the Sublingual and submandibular glands?
T1-L2 > synapse in superior cervical ganglion > ride with facial a. and lingual a. to reach glands
All of the muscles of the tongue are innervated by CN XII, except?
Palatoglossus - CN X
All of the muscles of the palate are innervated by CN X, except?
Tensor velli palatini - CN V3
All of the mm. in the pharynx are innervated by CN X, except?
Stylopharyngeus - CN IX
What are the 3 regions of the phaynx?
Nasopharynx Oropharynx Laryngopharynx
What mm. pull the soft palate up?
Levator Veli Palatini (base auditory tube) Tensor Veli Palatini (pterygoid fossa)
All the mm. of the soft palate are innervates by ___, except _____, which is innervated by ______.
X Tensor Veli Palatini V3
What mm. act to pull down the soft palate?
Palatopharyngeus Palatoglossus Musculus uvulae
What muscle pops you ears?
Tensor Velli Palatini
What muscle is considered to be both part of the tongue and soft palate?
What muscle of the soft palate starts in the Pterygoid fossa?
Tensor velli palatini
What defines the border between the hard and soft palate?
What 2 arteries supply the palate?
Descending palatine (greater and lesser from PPF) Ascending palatine from the Facial a.
Motor pathway for mm. in soft palate:
Nucleus Ambiguous > jugular foramen > palatal mm. EXCEPT for tvp (V3)
General sensory pathway for the palate midline to canines:
V2 Cell bodies Trigeminal ganglion > foramen rotundum > PPF > Nasopalatine n. > sphenopalatine foramen > nasal septum > Incisive foramen
General sensory pathway for canines to soft palate:
V2 to PPF > Descending palatine n. > greater palatine canal > greater palatine foramen
General sensory pathway for the soft palate:
V2 to PPF > Descending palatine n. > lesser palatine canal > lesser palatine foramen
Trace the sympathetic fibers to the palate:
T1-L2 > synapse superior cervical ganglia > hitchhike IC > Deep Petrosal n. > joins greater petrosal n. at pterygoid canal > PPF > through PPF ganglion > greater and lesser PALATINE and NASOPALATINE routes to palate
T/F The parasympathetic pathway for CN VII to the palate uses the nasopalatine n. only.
False uses both nasopalatine and descending palatine nn.
What is the breakdown of the Constrictor mm. of the Pharynx?
4 Superior 2 Middle 2 Inferior
What is the function of the constrictor mm. of the pharynx?
Constrict during swallowing
All the pharyngeal constrictor mm. are innervated by...
All pharyngeal constrictor mm. attach to...
The superior pharyngeal constrictor mm. attach to raphae and:
pterygoid hamulus/pterygomandibular raphae/mandible/pharyngeal tubercle
The middle constrictor mm. attach to:
hyoid and median raphae
the inferior constrictor mm. attach to:
thyroid/cricoid cartilage and median raphae
What mm. attaches the auditory tube to the pharynx?
The 3 -pharyngeus mm. (palato, stylo, salpingo), are innervated by:
palato - X stylo - IX salpingo - X
Where does the larynx derive its blood supply?
Superior Thyroid from EC Inferior Thyroid from Subclavian branches
Branchial motor innervation to the pharynx:
Nucleus Ambiguous > jug foramen > pharynx (everything but the sytylopharyngeus)
What innervates the Nasopharynx?
Pharyngeal n. via pharyngeal canal (V2)
What is the general sensory pathway to the pharynx?
jug foramen > superior/inferior glossopharyngeal ganglia & Vagal ganglia > pharynx (IX & X)
How does the sympathetic pathway arrive at the pharynx?
Synapse superior cervical ganglia and hitchhike onto vessels.
Parasympathetic pathway to the pharynx:
Dorsal Vagal Motor Nucleus > jug foramen > synapse on or near target > gland (X)
Where is the parasympathetic ganglion for CN X?
there are none
What layer in the pharynx can easily carry infection?
Buccopharyngeal fascia (because it is continuous with pre-tracheal fascia)
From anterior to posterior, name the layers of the pharynx:
Mucosa Submucosa Fibrous pharyngobasilar fascia (attaches to skull) Muscular layer Buccopharyngeal layer