IFSTA HAZMAT Ch 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in IFSTA HAZMAT Ch 1 Deck (34):
1

CBRNE stands for:

Chemical
Biological
Radiological
Nuclear
Explosive

2

Are NFPA standards for hazmat recommendations, laws or regulations?

Recommendations unless adopted as such by authority having jurisdiction.

3

What are the NFPA's hazmat requirement standards?

NFPA 472 - Standard for Professional Competence of Responders
NFPA 473 - Standard for Competencies for EMS Personnel

4

Personnel trained to the Awareness and Operations Core Levels perform only what type of tasks at hazmat incidents?

Defensive - Operations Missions-Specific competencies allow responders to perform defensive and limited offensive actions

5

Offensive tasks allowed by OSHA involving flammable liquid and gas of the following materials:

Gasoline
Diesel fuel
Natural gas
Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)

6

What is TRACEM hazards?

Thermal
Radiological
Asphyxiation
Chemical (poisons, corrosives, irritants, convulsants
Etiological / biological
Mechanical

7

Thermal hazards are related to :

Temperature extremes

8

What are examples of cold exposure hazards?

Cryogenic and liquefied gasses (propane / carbon dioxide)

9

How are cryogenic stored / transported?

In their liquid states (a gas turns in to liquid at or below -130 degrees)

10

Elevated temperature material is defined as:

Liquid phase at temp at or above 212 degrees F
Liquid phase with a flash point at or above 100 F
Solid phase at a temp at or above 464 F

11

What is the least energetic form of radiation (radiological hazards)?

Non-ionizing radiation (visible light and radio waves)

12

What is the most energetic and hazardous form of radiation?

Ionizing radiation (greatest concern for first responders)

13

Types of ionizing radiation?

Alpha - blocked by skin
Beta - can be reduced or stopped by a layer of clothing
Gamma - photons - can easily pass through the body
Neutron - they cause the release of secondary radiation when interacting with the human body

14

What are the two categories of radiation doses:

Acute doses
Chronic doses

15

What are asphyxiation hazards?

Substances that affect the oxygenation of the body and generally lead to suffocation

16

Two types of asphyxiants

Simple - displace oxygen necessary for breathing
Chemical - substances that prohibit the body fro using oxygen

17

Types of chemical hazards:

Toxins/poisons
Irritants
Convulsants
Corrosives
Carcinogens
Sensitized / allergens

18

With the exception of liquid and gas fuels, what hazard comprise the largest usage in industry

Corrosives

19

How are corrosives divided in to categories

Acids and bases

20

What is the pH range for Acids

0 - 6.9

21

What is the pH range for bases (alkalis)

8 - 14 and are water soluble

22

What are irritant hazards

Toxins that cause temporary but sometimes severe inflammation to the eyes, skin or respiratory system

23

What are carcinogens

Cancer-causing agents (polyvinyl chloride, benzene, asbestos

24

Allergens -

Material that can cause an allergic reaction of the skin or respiratory system - latex, bleach, urushiol (poison oak,ivy)

25

What are biological / Etiological hazards

Microorganism so such as viruses or bacteria that may cause severe, disabling disease or illness

26

Name examples of biological hazards:

Viruses - simplest types of microorganisms (do not respond to antibiotics) only grow in living cells
Bacteria - single-called organisms
Rickettsias - specialized bacteria that live and multiply in the gastrointestinal tract of fleas/ticks
Biological Toxins - i.e. Botulinum toxin and ricin

27

Two most common types of Mechanical hazards are:

Striking - result of an explosion
Friction - result of portions of the body rubbing against an abrasive surface

28

Explosions can cause 4 hazards (3 mechanical 1 thermal):

Blast-pressure wave (shock wave); primary reason for injuries
Shrapnel fragmentation- small pieces of debris
Seismic effect - earth vibration
Incendiary thermal effect - explosion creates thermal heat

29

CDC defines routes of entry as:

Inhalation
Ingestion
Skin Contact
(Also injection and absorption)

30

What are the 4 main agencies involved in the regulations of hazardous materials?

DOT
EPA
DOL
NRC - Nuclear Regulatory Commission

31

DOT regulates transportation of hazardous materials in what modes?

Air, highway, pipeline, rail and water under Title 49 CFR

32

The _______ _______ _______ is designed to ensure that information about chemical hazards and associated protective measures is disseminated to workers / employers under the _____.

Hazard Communication Standard / DOL

33

What is the NRC's primary mission?

Protect the public's health and safety and the environment from the effects of radiation from nuclear reactors, materials and waste facilities. Under Title 10 CFR 20

34

What are hazardous materials defined as?

Substances that possess harmful characteristics (hazmat) or dangerous goods in Canada