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T/ F Most fatalities, injuries and illness in the fire service are preventable?

Pg 46


What was the leading cause of deaths in 2010?

Stress or overexertion (including heart attacks and strokes).
Pg 46


What are the leading types of injuries sustained to firefighters?

Strains / Sprains followed by cuts and bruises
Pg 46


Cardiovascular diseases are the _______ cause of firefighter fatalities, accounting for _____ percent of LODDs.

Leading / 45%
Pg 49


What are 4 work-related causes for cardiovascular diseases?

Exposure to smoke and chemicals
Heat stress from fires and high temps
Psychological stress
Long, irregular work hours
Pg 49


What are nonwork related causes of cardiovascular diseases?

Obesity, tobacco use and lack of physical fitness
Pg 50


In the general population, respiratory diseases are typically caused by smoking. But firefighters are also exposed to smile, gases and chemicals (such as _______ and _______) that can cause chronic respiratory diseases.

CO / phosgene - the only way to avoid such is to wear proper PPE
Pg 50


Chemicals found in smoke that contribute to COPD?

Sulfur dioxide
Hydrogen chloride
Nitrogen oxides
Pg 50


List the four types of cancers firefighters are at greater risk of contracting?

Testicular Cancer
Prostate Cancer
Non-Hodgkins lymphoma
Multiple Myeloma (bone marrow)
Pg 51


Obesity facts - study found that up to _____ percent of firefighters nationwide are overweight, ____ percent above the national average.

40% / 6%

Overweight puts a person at higher risk of
Type 2 Diabetes
Coronary Heart Disease
Cancers (breast, colorectal, endometrial and kidney)


One long term consequence of stress is ______.

Hypertension; one effective method to mitigate the effects of stress is develop a 'personal stress management program'.
Pg 52


NFPA standards established for protective clothing and equipment:

NFPA 1971 - Standard on Protective Ensembles for Structural Fire Fighting and Proximity Fire Fighting
NFPA 1975 - Standard on Station/Work Uniforms for Emergency Services
NFPA 1977 - Standard on Protective Clothing and Equipment for Wildland Fire Fighting
Pg 55


NFPA standards defining safe training practices and programs:

NFPA 1403 Standard on Live Fire Training Evolutions
NFPA 1404 Standard for Fire Service Respiratory Protection Training
NFPA 1407 Standard for Training Fire Service RIC
NFPA 1410 Standard for Training for Initial Emergency Scene Operations
NFPA 1451 Standard for a Fire Service Vehicle Operations Training Program


NFPA standards for the care and maintenance of personal and respiratory protective equipment:

NFPA 1851 Standard on Selection, Care and Maintenance of Protective Ensembles for Structural Fire Fighting and Proximity Fire Fighting
NFPA 1981 Standard on Open-Circuit SCBA for Emergency Services


NFPA standards to establish safety programs:

NFPA 1581 Standard on Fire Department Infection Control Program
NFPA 1582 Standard on Comprehensive Occupational Medical Program for FDs
NFPA 1584 Standard on the Rehab Process for Members During Emergency Operations and Training Exercises


What is the most comprehensive NFPA standard dealing with firefighter safety and health?

NFPA 1500 Standard on Fire Department Occupational Safety and Health Program; the basic concept of NFPA 1500 is to promote safety throughout the fire service


NFPA 1500 includes topics (for safety / health):

Safety / Health related policies and procedures
Training and education
Fire apparatus, equipment, and driver/operators
Protective clothing and protective equipment
Emergency Operations (IMS, risk management plan)
Facility Safety
Medical and physical requirements
Member assistance and wellness programs (EAP)
CISM program


OSHA's regulations are contained in:

Title 29, Chapter XVII of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR); are designed to ensure the workplaces are free from hazards that can cause death or serious injury (has materials, emergency operations, and PPE).
Pg 60


Everyone Goes Home is what?

The 16 Firefighter Life Safety Initiatives created by The National Fallen Firefighters Foundation with a goal of reducing LODDs by 25% within 5 yrs and 50% within 10 yrs.
Pg 61


The Phoenix Fire Dept Risk Model Simplified is (based on NFPA 1500 requiring a risk management plan):

Risk a lot to save a lot
Risk a little to save a little
Risk nothing to save nothing
Pg 62


To comply with NFPA 1500, fire departments must implement a firefighter safety and health program, whose main goals are to:

1. Prevent human suffering, fatalities, injuries, illnesses, and exposures to hazardous atmospheres and contagious diseases.
2. Prevent damage to or loss of equipment.
3. Reduce accidents and hazardous exposures, and their severity


What is the second leading cause for LODDs?

Motor vehicle accidents
Pg 66


When does safe vehicle operations begin?

With situational awareness! The perception of the surrounding environment, and the ability to anticipate future events.
Pg 67


Multiple emergency vehicles should travel at least _____ to ____ feet apart.

300 - 500 ft
Pg 70


Total stopping distance includes:

Reaction distance + vehicle breaking distance


What vital skill must all firefighters develop to recognize potential threats?

Situational Awareness
Pg 80


On Roadway incidents, your first form of protection to to be ______ to the drivers of passing vehicles by wearing ______ ____.

Visible / high-visibility vests
Pg 80


To meet NFPA standards a high-visible vest must have:

Reflective train and five-point breakaway fasteners (shoulders, side and waist).
Pg 80


Roadway incidents place an additional apparatus as a barrier ____ to ____ feet behind the first.

150 - 200 ft apart
Pg 81


What is the best way to secure a scene of a roadway incident?

Establishing control zones - cordoned off with rope/tape. (Hot, warm and cold zones).
Pg 83


The goal of scene management is to create a work area in which emergency responders can:

Perform their duties safely and effectively
Pg 83


When are collapse zones established?

Prolonged heat or fire has weakened the structure
A defensive strategy has been adopted
Interior operations cannot be justified
Pg 84


Traditionally the collapse zone is:

1 1/2 times the height of the structure
Pg 85


Where is the safest location for defensive operations when a collapse zone has been established?

The corner of a bldg.
Pg 85


To perform the duty of protecting the lives of the people in your community you must first protect yourself through a _______ approach to _____, _____, and ______.

Proactive / safety, health and fitness
Pg 46