Flashcards in IFSTA HAZMAT Ch 2 Deck (54):
First responders must be _____ and ______ of the hazardous materials present at every ______.
Diligent / observant / emergency
Seven clues to the presence of hazmat are as follows:
1. Occupancy Types, Locations and Pre-incident surveys
2. Container shapes
3. Transportation placards, labels and markings
4. Other markings and colors (non-transportation)
5. Written resources
7. Monitoring and detection devices
How can first responders reduce the number of on-site decisions?
Conducting pre-incident surveys
What does pre-incident surveys indentify?
Exposures (people, property and environment
Types, quantities and locations of Haz materials in the area
Dangers of the Haz materials
Possible access/egress difficulties
Inherent limitations of the responding organizations to control certain types of Haz mat emergencies
24 HR telephone #s of responsible parties and site experts
With terrorist targets 'harm' should be defined in terms of the the following concerns:
Killing / injuring persons
Causing panic / or disruption
Damaging the economy
Demoralizing the community
Containers' shapes can tell first responders ____ ____ ____ about the _____ ______ that might be inside.
A great deal / hazardous materials
Types of containers:
Bulk / non bulk
Refers to capacity as defined by the DOT
Types of containers:
Pressure and nonpressure
Refers to the design of the container based on the internal pressure
Types of containers:
Bulk-capacity fixed-facility system and transportation packaging
Refers to the facility or mode
Bulk vs nonbulk packaging defined as:
First must be anything other than a vessel
Bulk = max capacity is greater than 119 gallons (liquid)
Max net mass is greater than 882 pounds (solid)
Water capacity is 1001 gallons or greater (gas)
In general, above ground storage tanks are divided into two major catagories:
Nonpressure tanks (or atmospheric tanks) having a small amount of pressure (up to .5 psi inside)
Pressure tanks - Low pressure (.5 psi to 15 psi inside) and Pressure vessels having pressures above 15 psi
Is the atmospheric pressure lower or higher at low altitudes?
At low altitudes atmospheric pressure is greater
What is the atmospheric pressure at sea level?
14.7 psi or 29.9 inches of mercury
Non-pressure or atmospheric storage tanks used for storage of flammable and combustible liquids are designed to fail:
Along the shell-to-roof seam when explosion occurs- preventing the tank from propelling upward or splitting on the side
Atmospheric /Nonpressure fixed tanks typically are:
Large round, flat or coned tops
Bulk transportation containers can be divided into 3 main catagories:
Tank cars (railroad)
Cargo tank trucks (highway)
Intermodal Containers (multiple transportation modes -road, rail, waterway)
Tank cars (railroad) can be divided into the following three main catagories:
Low-pressure or general service tank cars
Pressure tank cars
Cryogenic liquid tank cars
Low-pressure tank car:
Transport non and hazardous mats with vapor pressures below 25 psi at 105 - 115 degrees F
Cylindrical with rounded ends with at least one manway access
Maybe compartmentalized up to 6 compartments
4000 - 45000 gallons
Pressure tank car:
Transport flammable, nonflammable, poisonous gasses greater than 25 psi at 68 deg F
Transport flammable liquids and liquified compress gases at pressures from 100 to 600 psi
Range 4000 - 45000 gallons
Pressure tanks are:
Cylindrical, noncompartmentalized metal tanks with rounded ends.
Pressure tank cars typically have all fittings out of sight
Cryogenic liquid tank car:
Low pressure usually below 25 psi
Refrigerated liquids -130 deg F and below
Usually carry argon, hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen
Fittings located ground level
Tank-within-a-tank - space between is vacuum protecting temp for 30 days
What are the two safety specs currently in use for Cargo trucks (highway)?
MC Standards - motor carrier
When are ring stiffeners used?
On corrosive liquid tanks
What are the nine UN Hazard Classes:
3. Flammable liquids
4. Flammable solids, substances liable for spontaneous combustion, substances that emit flammable gases on contact with water
5. Oxidizing substances and organic peroxides
6. Toxic and infectious substances
7. Radioactive materials
8. Corrosive substances
9. Misc dangerous substances and articles
What system forms the basis for DOT regulations when labeling hazardous materials?
Where is the hazard class or division number located on the diamond shaped placard?
DOT Placard Colors and description
Yellow - Oxidizer/Reactive
Red - Flammable
White - Health hazard (poison, corrosive)
Blue - Water reactive
Green - Nonflammable gas
When multiple placards are displayed, what placard is the primary placard?
The placard with the 4-digit UN ID number
What is DOT definition of gas?
A material that has a vapor pressure greater than 43.5 psi at 122 deg F or completely gaseous at 68 deg F at a standard pressure of 14.7 psi
Class 3 Flammable / Combustible Liquids difference:
Flammable liquids are having a flash point not more than 140ºF or any material in a liquid state with a flash point at or above 100ºF
Combustible liquid flashpoint above 141ºF and below 200ºF
Hazmat incidents can be controlled only when the personnel involved have _______ _______ to make ______ ______.
Sufficient information / informed decisions
When packaging meet more than one hazard material, which label is the primary and which is the subsidiary?
The primary is affixed higher than the subsidiary.
The regulations governing the use of labels are contained in:
Title 49 CFR
Class 3 are flammable and combustible liquids, what color is the placard?
Class 4 is flammable solids, spontaneously combustible materials and dangerous-when-wet materials, what color are these?
Flammable solid is red and white vertical stripes
Spontaneous combustible material is white over red
Dangerous-when-wet is blue
Class 8 is corrosive materials, what color is this placard?
White over black
Reporting marks are located where and what types of containers?
Also called initials and numbers may be used to get info about the railcar's contents from the railroad's computer / or shipper. Located on both sides (left when facing) in 4 inch letters and on both ends upper center.
What is the NFPA Standard System for the Identification of the Hazards of Materials for Emergency Response?
What is NFPA 704 designed for?
To alert responders to health, flammability, instability and related hazards (specifically oxidizer sand water-reactive materials).
What is the layout and key of the NFPA 704 identification system?
Blue = Health, located on the left diamond
Red = Flammability, located on the top diamond
Yellow = Instability, located on the right of the diamond
White = Special hazards (W with a line strike for water reactive and OX for an oxidizer)
0 - 4 rating for each is used, working up in severity of the hazard
Federal Hazardous Substances Act (FHSA) requires products for consumer households to include signal words to indicate the degree of hazard for the product - what are they?
CAUTION - minor health effect
WARNING - moderate hazard
DANGER - highest degree of hazard (severe or deadly effects)
POISON - in addition to DANGER of highly toxic materials
CAS numbers are:
Unique number assigned to a chemical substance or biological sequence
Shipping papers are written resources and are named different per transportation mode:
Air Bill - Air mode located in the cockpit
Bill of Lading - Highway mode located in the vehicle cab
Consist/Trainlist - Rail mode located in the Engine/Caboose
Dangerous Cargo Manifest - Water mode in the bridge or pilot house
Which sense is the safest of the five senses?
What is olfactory fatigue and where would this occur?
Gradual inability of a person to detect odors after initial exposure - smell is still there, we just can't smell it. Hydrogen sulfide will cause this.
List physical actions (processes that do not change elemental composition of materials involved)
Rainbow sheen on water surfaces
Wavy vapors over a volatile liquid
Frost/ice build up near a leak
Containers deformed by the force of the incident
Activated pressure-relief valves
Pinging / popping of heat exposed vessels
List Chemical reactions (convert one substance to another)
Temp drop (endothermic reaction)
Colored vapor clouds
T / F Monitoring and detection devices are within the scope for Awareness-Level personnel?
F -this requires actual contact and is for operations level
SLUDGEM stands for:
S - salivation (drooling)
L - Lacrimation (tearing)
U - Urination
D - Defecation
G - Gastrointestinal upset/aggravation
E - Emesis (vomit)
M - Miosis (pinpoint pupils) or Muscular twitching/spasms
DUMBELS stands for:
D - Defecation
U - Urination
M - Miosis / Muscular twitching
B - Bronchospasm (wheezing)
E - Emisis
L - Lachrimation
S - Salivation
Biological attacks utilize:
Viruses (only replicate itself in living cells), Bacteria (single-celled organisms), Rickettsia (specialized bacteria in the GI tract of arthropod carriers- ticks and fleas), Biological toxin (poison produced by living organisms)
How is a radiological attack released?
Most likely in the form of dust / powder
If agar plates (gelatinous or jelly like substance) are present is this a meth lab or biological lab?
Biological lab - meth lab has over the counter medications