Flashcards in Essentials Ch 17 Deck (46):
Defensive strategy is typically selected given one or more of the following factors:
No threat to occupant life exists
Occupants are not savable
The property is not savable
Sufficient resources are not available for an offensive strategy
There is a danger of structural collapse
An offensive strategy would endanger the lives of FFs because of hazardous conditions at the scene
The defensive strategy is intended to _____ or _____ an incident and keep it from ______.
Isolate / stabilize / expanding
With regards to resource coordination, at the operation progresses, fire attack must also be coordinate with ______ _____, _____ ______ and victim recovery efforts.
Loss control, cause determination
What is the opposite of situational awareness?
Having tunnel vision
Selecting the correct size of hoseline is critical for ______ and _____.
Efficiency and safety
The backup line performs three critical functions by:
1. Protecting the attack hoseline teams from extreme fire behavior
2. Protecting the means of egress for the attack hoseline team.
3. Provide additional fire suppression capability in the event that the fire increases in volume.
When selecting the proper nozzle, what three factors will dictate the nozzle and stream selection?
Available water supply
Number of firefighters available to safely operate the hoseline
Capabilities of the nozzle being used
Depending on the nature and size of the fire, FFs may us a ______, ______ or _______ _____ of attacking the fire.
Direct, indirect or combination method
A ____ _____ on the fire using a solid or straight stream uses water most on free-burning fires.
Direct attack - directly on the burning fuel
This method of attack produces large quantities of steam and must be coordinated with ventilation.
Indirect attack - made from outside the structure or involved area.
A _____ _____ combines cooling the hot gas layer at the ceiling level using an _____ _____ with a ____ ____ on the fuels burning neat the floor area.
Combination method / indirect attack / direct attack
Using a combination method, move the nozzle from the area overhead to the floor in a ____, ______ _____, or ________ manner.
Z / inverted T / rotational
In fires in upper levels of structures always check for fire extension _____ ____ ______ _____ before advancing up the stairs.
Below the fire floor
T / F TICs will provide an accurate assessment of the structural integrity of the floor system.
Various factors divided into specific categories will help determine the tactics used during an offensive strategy as follows:
VALUE - Life / safety hazards at the scene, savable lives, salvageable property
TIME - time to accomplish selected tactics, potential for collapse and deterioration of structural stability and potential changes in fire conditions
SIZE - tactical flow rates needed to control the fire, available resources, and fire conditions
Cooling the hot gas layer _____ the transfer of heat to other combustibles and ______ the chances of overhead gases _______.
Slows / reduces / igniting
Remember that smoke is fuel.
To protect exterior exposures either _______ the endangered persons, _______, or items or apply a ______ ______ of water or foam extinguishing agent between the _____ and the _______.
Remove / property / protective spray / fire / exposure
The following are actions consistent with removing the exposure:
1. Evacuating persons who are in the path of fire
2. Relocating parked vehicles or railroad cars
3. Using forklifts or other heave equipment to move piled storage
4. Relocating fire apparatus when fast moving fires have put them in danger
The electric meter is the ______ ______ for shutting off the power.
High voltage _____ Volts
Low Voltage _____ volts
Excess of 600 volts
Less than 600 volts - typically 120 volts or less
Most solar panel arrays have _____ _____ _____, one on each side of the _____ _____.
Two shutoff switches / power inverter
Natural gas in its pure form is _______, which has a flammability range of ___ to ____ percent but is nontoxic. Natural gas is ______ than air so it tends to _____ and _____ in the open.
Methane / 5 - 15% / lighter / rise and diffuse
LPG is about _____ ____ ____ ______ as _____ as air so it will _____ to the lowest point possible.
One and a half times / heavy / sink
LPG gas is explosive in concentrations between _____ and _____ percent.
1.5 - 10%
Four main uses for a master stream:
Supplement handlines that are already attacking the fire exteriorly
Provide exposure protection
Class C fires involve ______ _____ _____.
Energized electrical equipment
Once the electrical power is _____ _____, Class C fires may _____ _____. If they do continue to burn, these fires will become either a _____ or ______ fires.
Shut off / self extinguish / Class A or Class B
Fires in transformers at ground level, use :
A dry chemical or carbon dioxide extinguisher
Safe distance for personnel and apparatus for an underground electrical vault is:
At least 300 feet
The first rule in dealing with electrical hazards is to assume:
That all electrical wires, equipment and devices are energized until proven otherwise
What is an electrical behavior that produces electrical pulses in the ground starting at the point where the power line contacts the earth and expanding out in concentric circles?
Combustible metal fires are very hot (Class D), greater than ______.
Attack a vehicle fire with a _____ angle to avoid potential injuries from exploding hydraulic or pneumatic struts.
Where are Natural gas tanks located in vehicles?
Trunk area, under side panels, or in the open bed of pickups
Colored wires to avoid due to electrocution hazards with electric vehicles:
Orange, blue and yellow wires
Three main influences on ground cover fire behavior are:
Of these weather is most significant
Three basic types of ground fires:
Of the three types of ground fires, what is the most common?
Surface fire - low lying grass, shrubs etc.
(Ground fires are in the dead organic matter (humus)
(Crown fires are canopy fires that are wind driven -lightening strikes or surface and ground fires are the causes)
LCES stands for:
Lookout - know where the fire is and where it's going
Communications - know who is operating where
Escape Routes - know more than one way out
Safe Zones - know how to quickly to an area of refuge
To accomplish incident priorities (life safety, incident stabilization and property conservation) apply tactics based on RECEO-VS, which stands for:
Two in two out OSHA regulation requires that when two firefighters enter a structure fire that has developed beyond the _____ ______, there must be two fully equipped firefighters to rescue the attack team if necessary.
Hazards common to confined spaces:
Flammable gases and vapors
_____ fires involve flammable and combustible liquids and gases.
Liquids with flash points of less than 100ºF
Flammable Liquids (gasoline and acetone)
Liquids that have flash points higher than 100ºF
Combustible liquids - kerosene and vegetable oil