Flashcards in JFK & LBJ, 1961-1968 Deck (70):
What three issues dominated the 1960s?
1.Civil Rights Movement
2.Vietnam War/Cold War
Who became the 35th president of the U.S. when he won the very close election of 1960? When this individual entered the White House with this family, it became known as Camelot.
Pres. John F. Kennedy (1961-1963)
What famous quote did JFK give in his inaugural address?
"Ask not what your country can do for you--ask what you can do for your country"
What was Kennedy's program called that wanted to increase aid to education, federal support for health care, and civil rights. Lyndon B. Johnson would pass many of these programs after Kennedy's death.
What was President Johnson's program called where he declared a war on poverty?
Great Society (1965-1966)
This Great Society program provided health insurance for those 65 and older.
This Great Society program provided government-paid healthcare for the poor and the disabled.
This Great Society program helped disadvantaged preschool students.
The Elementary and Secondary Education Act passed under the Great Society. What did this act do?
Provide aid to poor school districts
The Higher Education Act under the Great Society did what?
Provide federal scholarships
This act under the Great Society allowed for Asians and Latin Americans to immigrate to the United States.
Was the Great Society of the 1960s successful?
Poverty was cut by at least 40 percent, but these programs put a strain on American taxpayers. Many of these programs will be reduced or eliminated because of the expense of the Vietnam War.
In 1961, the Alliance for Progress was created to build up which nations to the point where they could manage their own affairs?
Third World nations
In 1961, this organization under JFK encouraged U.S. citizens to help third world countries.
Peace Corps (1961)
In 1961, the U.S. puts its first man in space. JFK promised Americans that by the end of the decade the U.S. would put a man on the moon. Who became the first man to walk on the moon?
Neil Armstrong (1969)
In 1961, this organization was formed which included oil producing countries. Many of these countries were Arab nations from the Middle East.
OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries)
In 1962, this court case banned prayer in public schools, because it violated the first amendment.
Engel v. Vitale (1962)
In 1962, Rachel Carson wrote this book that focused on the use of pesticides. This book helped pass clean air and water acts and created the Environmental Protection Agency.
Silent Spring by Rachel Carson (1962)
In 1962, Michael Harrington wrote this book that focused on poverty in America. Inspired JFK's New Frontier and Johnson's Great Society programs.
The Other America by Michael Harrington
Name some Cold War events between 1945-1950?
1945-U.S. drops two a-bombs on Japan
1946-Churchill's "Iron-Curtain" speech
1947-Containment Policy (Kennan)
1947-Truman Doctrine & Marshall Plan
1949-NATO is formed
1949-Soviets test first a-bomb
1949-China becomes Communist
Name some Cold War events between 1950-1960.
1952-U.S. & Soviets test first h-bomb
1954-SEATO is formed
1954-France leaves Indochina
1960-Viet Cong if formed
In 1961, this was the failed attempt by the CIA to overthrow Fidel Castro using Cuban exiles. Castro received aid from the Soviet Union.
Bay of Pigs Invasion (1961)
In 1961, Nikita Khrushchev threatened Kennedy to take U.S. troops out of West Berlin. Kennedy refused, so what did Khrushchev do?
Berlin Wall is built (1961)
In 1962, this was the closest the U.S. and USSR came to nuclear war. A "hotline" was created that directly connected the White House and the Kremlin (Soviet government) so that future crises could be dealt with quickly.
Cuban Missile Crisis (1962)
What started the Cuban Missile Crisis in 1962 and how was it resolved?
USSR secretly sent missiles to Cuba. Kennedy blockades Cuba and the Soviets eventually agree to remove the missiles after the U.S. promised not to invade Cuba.
Who assassinated JFK in 1963?
Lee Harvey Oswald
In 1963, this commission investigated JFK's assassination and concluded that Oswald acted alone and there was no Communist conspiracy. Majority of Americans did not believe this report.
Warren Commission (1963)
Who was the Communist leader of North Vietnam that eventually led Communist forces to defeat the French?
Ho Chi Minh
In 1954 at the Geneva Conference, the French agreed to leave Vietnam. Vietnam would be divided at this parallel.
After the French left Vietnam in 1954. A civil war broke out in South Vietnam between the non-communists and the Communist guerrillas who lived in the South but supported the North. What was the name used for the South Vietnamese guerrillas.
List some event leading up to the Vietnam War between the years of 1954-1963.
1954-French withdraw from Indochina
1955-Ngo Dinh Diem becomes president
1960-Viet Cong forms
1963-16,000 American advisors in S.Vietnam
1963-Ngo Dinh Diem is assassinated
In 1962, this was a radical student activist organization that advocated a more democratic society. Major student organization opposing the Vietnam War.
Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) (1962)
Who became the 36th president of the U.S. after the assassination of JFK?
Pres. Lyndon Baines Johnson (1963-1969)
In 1963, this treaty banned nuclear testing in the atmosphere and the ocean.
Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (1963)
In 1964, this Congressional resolution gave President Johnson a blank check to take "all necessary measures" to protect U.S. interests in South Vietnam. War was never declared by Congress.
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution (1964)
The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution gave the U.S. a reason to send troops into South Vietnam. What happened in the Gulf of Tonkin?
North Vietnamese gunboats allegedly fired on American destroyers. Some still doubt these events ever took place.
Who are hawks?
Americans who supported U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War.
Who are doves?
Americans who opposed U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War.
In 1964, this student run movement began at the University of California, Berkeley. School officials refused to allow political materials to be distributed on campus. Students demanded more freedoms.
Free Speech Movement (New Left) (1964)
In 1968, the Viet Cong launched this all-out surprise attack during a Vietnamese holiday. Although this attack failed, Americans became demoralized that the war was not close to being over, even though Americans were told "victory was around the corner."
TET Offensive (1968)
In 1968, this horrific event happened in Vietnam when U.S. soldiers murdered 347 women, children, and elderly. Americans began to change their opinion and wonder what was the U.S. doing in Vietnam.
My Lai Massacre (1968)
1968 in America was a difficult and chaotic year. The Vietnam War was becoming increasingly unpopular. Also, which two American leaders were assassinated in 1968?
Robert F. Kennedy
Martin Luther King, Jr.
In 1968, President LBJ would not run for reelection. At the Democratic National Convention Chicago police officers brutally beat students and others who had shown up to protest. What slogan did the students start chanting?
"The whole world is watching"
List some important Civil Rights events during the 1940s-1950s.
1948-Truman integrates military
1954-Brown v. Board
1955-Montgomery Bus Boycott
1956-Little Rock High School
1957-SCLC founded by MLK Jr
1960-Sit-in movement by SNCC
This Civil Rights group organized sit-ins. Its leaders were not ministers and demanded immediate, not gradual change. This group will shift from nonviolent to violent actions.
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)
In 1961, this Civil Rights organization sponsored Freedom Rides.
Congress for Racial Equality (CORE)
Who were the Freedom Riders (1961)?
Blacks and whites rode on buses through the South to test the Supreme Court's decision of banning segregation on interstate routes. Riders were met with violence.
In 1962, this African American Air Force veteran attempted to enroll in the University of Mississippi. Kennedy sent in troops to control mob violence and protect him.
In 1963, this governor of Alabama tried to stop African American students from entering the University of Alabama. Kennedy sent in troops to admit the students. This governor will later run for president.
George Wallace (Alabama)
In 1963, Martin Luther King, Jr. was arrested in Alabama and wrote the "Letter from a Birmingham Jail." What did he reaffirm in his letter?
Committed to nonviolent protests against segregation and violence.
In 1963, Martin Luther King Jr. led one of the most successful Marches on Washington. What famous speech did he give?
"I Have a Dream" speech where he asked for the end of racial prejudice.
In 1964, this act made segregation illegal in all public facilities. Federal government had the additional power to enforce school desegregation. Also ended racial discrimination in employment.
Civil Rights Act of 1964
In 1964, this amendment abolished the practice of collecting poll taxes.
In 1964, this was the name given to the efforts of CORE and SNCC workers in the South to register as many blacks to vote as they could. Many were met with beatings and murder.
Freedom Summer (1964)
In 1965, Martin Luther King Jr., organized this march to campaign for voting rights. Television showed the marchers being beaten by police clubs and hit with tear gas. President Johnson sent in troops to protect the civil rights demonstrators.
March to Montgomery (Alabama) (1965)
In 1965, this act outlawed discriminatory voting practices. Ended literacy tests.
Voting Rights Act of 1965
In 1965, race riots erupted in these cities. Army was sent in to stop the violence.
Harlem, Watts, Detroit
In 1965, this leader of the Black Muslims was assassinated. He preached Black Nationalism, separatism, and self-improvement. He would later move from violence to nonviolence.
This group of the 1960s preached separation from white society and use force if necessary for protection.
Nation of Islam (Black Muslims)
Malcolm X founded this more peaceful organization, but would be killed by the Nation of Islam members soon after his change of heart.
Organization of Afro-American Unity
In 1966, Stokely Carmichael, leader of SNCC, rejected nonviolence and advocated what two things?
Black Power & Racial Separatism
Bobby Seale & Huey Newton founded this group that setup programs that gave food to poor blacks in San Francisco and established schools to teach black history and culture. Image damaged because of their violent reputation with police.
In 1968, this act prohibited discrimination in housing.
Civil Rights Act of 1968
In 1968, this commission concluded that racism and segregation were responsible for race riots in the U.S. There were "two societies, one black, one white--separate and unequal"
Kerner Commission (1968)
This was the term given to the movement by young people during the 1960s who rejected political involvement and emphasized the need for personal revolution instead of political. Members wore long hair, experimented with drugs and sex (free love). Were known as "hippies."
In 1969, this music festival attracted thousands of "hippies" and reflected the zenith of the counterculture. "Peace and Love."
Woodstock Music Festival (1969)
In 1963, Betty Friedan wrote this book that influenced the feminist movement.
The Feminine Mystique by Betty Friedan
In 1966, this woman's organization was founded by Betty Friedan and fought for eqaul pay for women. (equal compensation)
National Organization for Women (NOW)
In 1973, this Supreme Court decision legalized abortion, with some restrictions.
Roe v. Wade (1973)